Sunday, April 20, 2014

Task of the People of Ceylon Against the Neo Colonial and Neo Liberal Attacks of Imperialism by E. Thambiah

Democracy and Class Struggle supports the re-building of a revolutionary communist and progressive movement in Ceylon and publish this article from Comrade E.Thambiah has a contribution towards that re building process. The views expressed in the article are those of Comrade Thambiah and not those of Democracy and Class Struggle.

Karl Marx Memorial Lecture


(Lecture delivered by comrade E. Thambiah co-convener of Ceylon Communist Unity Centre, on the occasion of the 131st Anniversary of the demise of Karl Marx at Women Studies and Research Centre in Colombo on 15th March 2014.)


Karl Marx was born on 05th of May 1818 at Trier in the Province of Rhine in Prussia (Germany) and died on March 14th 1883 in London. So we are commemorating his 131st anniversary of the demise with the efforts to use his dialectic materialistic methodology and ideology to understand the current and to change Ceylon as well as the world for better and also to change ourselves towards higher standard and moral style of life. We would like to commemorate Karl Marx concentrating on historical laws of capitalism and its currents.

He proved that the existence of classes in economical strata only bound up with historical phase in the development of production, the differences – inequality among classes requires struggles to liberate the oppressed classes under the leadership of proletariats the class struggle in that nature necessarily leads to dictatorship or hegemony or centralization of political power of proletariat. And the dictatorship or hegemony or centralization is the only way to travel towards the abolition of all classes and to classless society where the real equality would be established.

Karl Marx lived in the moribund of feudalism transformation into capitalism and the eve of imperialism. Therefore it is suitable to discuss neo-colonialism, neo-liberalism of imperialism the highest form of capitalism.

The change of economic base structure of capitalism into socialism base structure and capitalist superstructure into socialist superstructure are only possible by proletarian hegemony.

The writings and activities of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels are called by us as Marxism. The ideology and methodology of Marxism is not proved to be invalid beside the fall of soviet and Eastern-European socialism and capitulation of China to capitalization or the setbacks of socialism and the re-capitalist revolution with the revolution in the field of science, technology and information.
Marxiologists and communist parties of the world and Marxist studies and research centers hitherto lots of studies are done to develop the outlook of the world and of Marxism. We can see lots of contributions of Marxists worldwide, through which various attempts are taken to find the reasons for setbacks of socialism and to rebuild socialism.

During the time of Marx the world capitalist forces were not mature enough and had no way of calling the development of them as Imperialism. But Marx has foreseen the globalization of capital. The following quotations from Communist Manifesto substantiate the position of Marx.

“The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of productions, and thereby the relations of production and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainly and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from earlier ones...
The need of constantly expanding markets for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, and establish connections everywhere.” Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto

So I take this opportunity to discuss my views based on the codification of views of Marxist up to now. I would like to articulate my discussion under following headings. 

1. The historical outlook of the Colonialism, Imperialism, Neo-Colonialism, 
2. History of anti-imperialist struggle,
3. Neo-colonial and neo-liberal attacks of imperialism on the people of Ceylon, and 
4. The task of people of Ceylon against the neo-colonial, neo-liberal attacks.

1. The historical outlook of the Colonialism, Imperialism, Neo - Colonialism

Prior to the emergence of imperialism, according to Marx in Communist Manifesto the globalization of capital was primarily moved towards the search of materials outside the particular political territory. The weaker capitalists were absorbed by stronger capitalists in the end of 19th century. Large industries and financial institutions were established and they dominated the markets within a respective political territory as well as out of it. This process has changed the commercial competitive capitalism of colonization into monopoly capitalism.

Marx and Engels have correctly analyzed the fundamentals of Economic base and proved that the class contradiction of capitalism is a social system. These discoveries of Marx and Engels

are still governing capitalism. Marx has written about colonialism and especially the British rule in India and the future results of British rule in India.

Marx believed that capitalism would create a revolutionary working class who would bring about the negation of capitalism, He was on the view that the nature of progressive aspects of colonialism in the Indian contact changing Asiatic mode of production into European mode of production which will create working class and material condition for socialist transformation. Thus it is unfair to state that Marx was not critical at all, about the inherent progressive aspect of capitalism.

Marx has written on page 75 of volume I of the Das Capital that “the discovery of gold and silver in America the extirpation, enslavement and entombment in mines of aboriginal population, the beginning of the conquest and looting of the East Indies the turning of Africa into warren for the commercial hunting of black – skins, signalized the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production. These idyllic proceedings are chief moments of primitive accumulation.”

Marx has analyzed how capitalism compels the capitalist to seek market outside a territory. He has written on page 336 in volume 3 of the das capital that “As soon as manufactured gains sufficient strength and particularly large scale industries, it creates in its turn a market for itself, by capturing through its commodities. At this point commerce becomes the servant of industrial production, for which continued expansion of market become a vital necessity. Even more extend mass production floods the existing market, and thereby works continually for a still greater expansion of this market, for breaking out of its limits”.

Lenin who analyzed the highest stage of capitalism and found it to be imperialism he stated colonial policy and imperialism existed before latest stage of capitalism and even before capitalism. Rome, founded on slavery pursued a colonial policy and practiced imperialism. But general distinguish on imperialism which ignore or put into background, the fundamental difference between social economic formations, inevitably turn into the most vapid banality of bragging like the comparison Great Rome and Great Britain”. Here we can observe that the colonial policy of previous stage of capitalism is different form the colonial policy of finance capital. This led to the transformation of the era of lassie faire capitalism to the era of imperialism.

Lenin who has analyzed the higher stage of capitalism and found it to be imperialism. He has written “Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism: in 1916. Lenin has elaborated the essence of monopoly capitalism was the development and domination of financial capital and those are mixture of industrial and bank capital.

Lenin has defined the imperialism as follows

“1. the concentration of production and capital has developed to such a high stage that it has created monopolies which play a decisive role in economic life” 2) the merging of bank capital with industrial capital and the creation, on the basis of this “finance capital”, of financial oligarchy; 3) the export of capital as distinguished from the export of commodities acquires exceptional importance; 4) the formation of international monopolist capitalist associations which share the world among themselves, and 5) the territorial division of the whole world among the biggest capitalist powers is completed. Imperialism is capitalism at that stage of development at which the dominance of monopolies and finance capital is established; in which the export of capital has acquired pronounced importance; in which the division of the world among the international trust has begun; in which the division of all territories of the globe among the biggest capitalist powers has been completed.”

At this stage of capitalism the exploitation of labour by the capital and the equality of labour was denied thus have created inequality among other social sections was aggravated further, including nationalities, female and other identities as well. Capitalist economic base structure not only widened the division among people but also created more division in the world.

The imperialism the highest stage of capitalism broaden the macro exploitation of labour as well as micro exploitation and increased the divisions of the world. Imperialism created with its monopoly capital a privileged minority of nations where it has a tendency of creating privileged sections among the workers and detached the broad masses of proletariat.

Lenin explained that the colonization of Asia, Africa and Latin American countries or all countries other than imperialist countries brought under domination of both economic and political controls of imperialism. These countries, are identified by Lenin as colonies, which

were under total economic. political and territorial control of any one of the imperialist countries and semi colonies which were formally independent but in fact enmeshed with financial and diplomatic dependency.

In 1939 Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of the Mao Tse-Tung China was identified as colonial, semi colonial and semi feudal society, some part of China then was under indirect rule of imperialist with the help of compradors. This indirect controlled area was called as semi colonial society.

The identification of semi colonial region by the communist party of China in 1939 resemblance with those of the control and rule after World War II. But in the course of the Great debate in 1964 with Soviet party, the CPC in its document „Apologist of Neo- colonialism‟ has stated that after the World War II that the imperialism has taken recourse to a new kind of indirect ruling system instead of direct rule and the system was recognized as Neo- colonialism.

Apart from the differences between the features of semi-colony and neo-colony both terms were synonymously used with confusion. Due to this mistaken position some argue that there is no colonialism and imperialism in the present context. Some used to state that the present position of imperialism with globalization as another stage of capitalist imperialism. Therefore it is very important to correctly identify the present position of imperialism to identify that enemy of the people to transform the society towards for better.

The nucleus of neo-colonialism has seeded in 1944 as a result of Brettonwood agreement. This was a result of US imperialism which has emerged at that time as a leader of imperialist countries and the intellectual of capitalist imperialism of US. During that period US was facing two challenges which were imperialist contradiction which have arisen as the result of the process of decolonization and the formal independence of colonial countries and ever intensifying national liberation struggle which were supported by Socialist Soviet Union and the threatening very existence of imperialism. As the result of Brettonwood agreement International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or the World Bank and International Monetary Fund were establish in order to accelerate, regulate and control the export of finance capital through aid and loan to establish financial hegemony on the defeated imperialist countries and the countries gained political independence from the direct colonial rule.

Further in 1948 the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) was introduced to control the trade and market all over the world. The old companies of imperialism are replaced by the Transnational Companies, thereafter multi-national companies.

In the economic base structure, the era of laissez faire capitalism was transformed to the era of imperialism as Keynesian. The Laissez faire liberal economic system based on free trade was challenged by Chicago School of Economic which emphasized efficiency of market competition, the role of individuals in determining economic out comes and distortions associated with government intervention and regulation of markets.

American Keynesians had differences with regard to the income distributions. American Keynesians were tend to accept the neo-liberal (contemporary economic base structure of neo- colonialism) paid what you are worth theory of distribution while European Keynesians reject the view and they argued that the income distribution depends significantly on institutional factors and considered bargaining power. Between 1945 to 1980 these two theories were influential and but at present dominant was American Keynesian theory.

After World War II (1945-1970) Keynesianism has constituted the dominant paradigm for understanding the determination of economic activities. The monopoly capitalism during the inter war period has become a basis for fascism in 1930‟s Keynesians demanded management and state regulation of economy. This was the period when modern tools of monetary policy and fiscal policy were developed. In this period the union coverage rose to historical heights of social protection and regulation were expanded.

In 1970s the Keynesian went into reverse to replace by neo-liberalism. The election of Margret Thatcher in 1979 and Ronald Regal in 1980 can be viewed as an inauguration of neo- liberal economic policy dominance. In the industrial countries the economic agenda was US model. This includes of deregulation of finance markets, privatization, weakening of Social Protection, weakening of unions and labour market protection shrinking of government cutting of top tax rates, opening of international goods and capital markets and abandonment of full employment goals under the guise of natural rate.

This U.S model of Neo-liberal economic is contrary to the European model even though both are Neo-liberalism. The welfare policies introduced by Keynesian approach have not been completely taken away by the European Model.

The U.S model of neo-liberalism has become very domain worldwide and the state monopoly capitalism was shaken. The states of countries gained political independence from colonialism have resorted to state monopoly capitalism. The stronger countries have become stake holder of imperialism by adopting the neo- liberal economic policies which renounce the state control even though they are also subjected to neo colonial and Neo- liberal policies.

The weaker countries are compelled to fully submit them to the neo-colonial, neo liberal policies. U.S model of neo- liberalism denies the Trade Union Right, Social Rights, Social and welfare protection, state regulation and control over economy not only within territory of U.S but also worldwide wherever it has control and pressurize its economic, the sovereign states to adhere to neo liberal policies.
The Soviet Union under new revisionist clique the state monopoly capital had to resort to the globalization Capital by adopting neo- liberalism. 

The Soviet Union in 1960s and until soviet structure completely collapsed in latter part of 1980‟s it was establishing the neo- colonial rule on the countries which were supported by it. So it has become social imperialism. The dismantling of soviet structure in 1980‟s the recapitalization and capitulation to the neo liberal economy both in Socialist Soviet Union and China and the revolution in science, technology and information made convenience to the globalization of the capital. The neo-colonialism and neo-liberalism have entered into an era of global application in 1980s .This is considered by us as re-capitalist revolution with capitalist imperialist globalization in the neo- colonial phase.

From 1944 neo-colonialism has systematically developed through liberal, neo liberal economic policies and militarizing the individual states and the world. In 20th as well as 21st century the Imperialism has systematically established the neo-colonial rule not only by economic domain but also military domain from Middle East wars to Balkanization Iraq to Libya; now in Syria.

Although it was stated that the neo-colonialism will not harm the sovereignty and integrity of a country, now these are also at threat through the pressure from UN agencies and their programmes and military actions in view of changing regimes of countries.

The imperialism of U.S and Europe are popular enough to intervene in other states through UN mechanism basing on want of accountability of states on violation of human rights, humanitarian laws, want of good governance with democracy, to pass resolution and impose collective and individual economic embargo on other states. Therefore it is evident that UN and its agencies are strengthened in view of consolidating imperialism in neo-colonial phase.

The imperialism has strengthen its neo-colonial rule not only though its neo-liberal economic base structure but through its super structures of neo-colonial culture. It has supported with new political thought, theories and ideologies such as post modernism and related political stands. Identity politics which sans the class orgination in nationality questions and oppression on caste and women in the question of nationalities, casts and women oppression.

The role of non-government organizations in the so-called development activities and policy making has been increased with patronage of imperialism thus the transformation of nation states into corporate bodies to implement neo-liberalism.

Some countries among which have gained political independence from colonial rule, which monopolized their capital and gradually establish their imperialist interest on weaker countries. The transformation from colonialism to neo-colonialism has made easier to establish imperialist interest of stronger countries on weaker and smaller countries. 

Thus made them imperialist countries i.e. India, Brazil, Iran and Turkey, whereas Japan and China have established its neo-colonial rule through its economical domination on others. Former socialist states ie. Russia, China, with their monopoly state capital and their degeneration of capitalism and full adaptation of neo-liberalism established their imperial interest and neo-colonial rule on other countries.

The Said different types of imperialist countries with the differences with their partners working together under the system of globalized capitalist imperialism in the neo-colonial phase. Under the neo-colonialism the application of neo-liberalism has absorbed almost all the countries unlike the classical colonialism there is no common or unique application of economic neo-liberalism. For example the modus operandi of neo-liberalism in India is not similar to U.S or Iran or China or Brazil or Turkey

So the specification of neo-liberalism is that would be carried on with the special characterization of each and every country. This is possible only in powerful countries or stronger countries but not in small weaker country like Ceylon. The small and weaker states are compelled to adopt neo-liberalism as the unavoidable economic system due to their weaker economic base. Unlike in post-independence period the state and countries are not independent to adopt their national economy based on self-sufficiency as the neo-liberalism has taken over all the economic affairs of the world. Political leaderships of these countries are also not at least relatively independent in politics like in post-independence period.

The crises of neo-liberalism have created more contradiction among imperialist countries in the race to lead the world and for their very existence. But they play the same game of imperialism with neo-colonial and neo-liberal policies. The non-imperialist countries are compelled to intensify the practice of neoliberal policies thus invites and accommodates more and more the neo-colonial masters to their territory.

The political leadership of non-imperialist states is subjugated to the neo liberalism and especially they are very comfortable with the imperialism. They mostly contradict with the feature of the super structure, such as the governance of imperialism. They are happy to maintain the contradiction pertaining to the super structure of imperialism as to play local politics with their pseudo Anti Imperialism.

In this background we made to understand that there is no more possibility to find the simultaneous existence of semi-colonial indirect rule and direct colonial rule like in the earlier period. This means while indirect rule and control was a regional compulsion behind ruling. The worldwide freedom movements have transformed it to a worldwide universal compulsion. 

As the imperialist forces are not identical the neo colonial system among countries subjected to neo colonialism is also not identical. There may be puppet governments or military bases in the other countries, so called massive development project, investment maintained by imperialist countries in other countries and also subjected to trading treaties and military pacts, through which neo-colonial rule is established.

Therefore neo-colonialism appears on different forms in different countries. It may be in the form of puppet government or debt committed traps, trapped by the U.N mechanism which is fully controlled by the imperialist countries .The ruling system in the countries are mostly copied from products of imperialist intellectuality. It is evident that the so called representative or participatory democratic system of ruling class is most favourable for neo- colonial control.

The countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America are allowed political independence but they are subjected to neo- colonial control. The development of political institutions and reforms cannot curb the dominance of finance capital as the political institutions and reforms become compatible as components of the economy. Therefore neo liberal attacks of imperialism are very serious in the neo colonial phase. We should realize that the neo colonialism is a more pernicious and sinister form of colonialism as stated in the Chinese Communist Party document (namely, Apologist of Neo Colonialism great debate in 1960s) Although it has been initiated in 1944 the neo colonialism has taken a solid form in 1960s and established itself in 1980‟s with the agenda of imperialist globalization.

2. History of Anti- imperialism

The Writings of Karl Marx on colonialism and the Lenin on imperialism have invited the human being to struggle against the imperialism to transform the society into socialism.

Pre capitalist colonialism was opposed by the leadership of the countries (kings and land lords) with the mobilization of original people of countries on the basis against the aliens or strangers.

In the year of 1864 Karl Marx and Engles had formed the 1st international with the coalition of trade unions worldwide. The second international was formed in 1889 by Marx and Engles with the coalition of workers parties and social democratic organization. In 1919 Third international was formed by Lenin. These are the result of the want of centralized international institution of workers to fight out the capitalism.

The formations and functions of internationals were strengthened with anti- imperialist struggles. The juxtaposition of the national liberation movement with Marxist put imperialism in decline in 1917 October revolution and thereafter the national liberation struggles, 1949

Chinese revolution followed by other countries have liberated the large section of the world population from grip of imperialism.

At the same time we should not overlook the mistakes and distorted position of some forces of the International Communist Movement. The Kautskyian revisionist who had the leadership of 2nd international had openly declared that colonialism was progressive and it brought developed civilization to the colonies and developed productive forces. 

According to them the abolition of colonies would mean barbarism. This is somewhat equal to the position of some force of present days. Some Trotskyists movements and the post-modernists also claim that the imperialist globalization is progressive.

Although the dissolution of 3rd international or Commintern in 1943 said to be as sacrifice of communist movement for strengthening the anti- fascist movement to unite with the imperialist powers U.S, U.K and France to fight fascism by exposing the imaginary fascism about the communist world domination.

Marxists are against imperialism as it is he highest stage of capitalism and their anti- Imperialist struggle is to eradicate capitalism from the universe and it is firm and absolute that without defeating capitalism it would not be possible to eradicate imperialism and to centralize the power of labour in order to declass the human society where the real equality will be enjoyed without any exploitation.

The anti-imperialist struggle of nationalist, humanist, religionist, protectionist and some of the post-modernist is entirely different from Marxist Anti- imperialist struggle but the formers would be or should kept or entertained juxtaposition with Marxist in the broader united front against imperialism in the neo- colonial phase. 

All sorts of fundamentalist and fanatics and pseudo anti-imperialist should be isolated from the anti- imperialist struggle. Fundamentalism and parochialism are invalid to go against imperialism.

In this background we can understand that the failure to have authoritative International organization of communists based on Anti-imperialist after the dissolution of 3rd international has led to severe setback in anti-imperialist struggles even though the world people succeeded in defeating fascism.

The Chinese Communist Party which supported the dissolution of 3rd international has deviated to the position in later part of 1960‟s that the international communist movement is not necessary beside the Chinese Communist Party has taken to task the Kuruchevites revisionist line which put forward three peaceful phenomenon that are peaceful co- existence and peaceful competition with imperialist and peaceful transition to socialism. This position is only stressing the contradiction between socialist camp and imperialist camp. Beside, in first half of 1960s thus it is clear that the Chinese party had correctly seen the evaluation of colonial phase into the neo colonial phase.

During this period that party had to fight against the rightist Liu-Shao-Chi and ultra-leftist Lin Biao who where holding top positions in the party. When the Liu- Shao Chi line was defeated the line of Linbiao gained the hold.

The leadership of Kuruchchev of soviet communist party submitted itself to imperialism and developed its worldwide dominance with a new line of imperialism known as social imperialism in the neo colonial phase. And the deviation of Chinese Communist Party denying the correct Leninist position, this era of imperialism and proletarian revolution and replacing it the idea of imperialism heading for total collapse and socialism advancing towards worldwide victory which most (the Lin biao) of the communist parties followed. This led to theoretical setback of Anti-imperialism.

Although Mao accepted in 1966‟s that the neo-colonialism is established, China Communist Party shouted the slogan, and “imperialists are paper tigers”. This was an under estimation of the imperialism in the neo-colonial phase.

Another blow came from Deng Xiaoping in 1976 that is the introduction of theory of three worlds‟, the class collaborative theory which neglected the contradiction between imperialism and socialist force.

The Soviet position in first half of 1960s and the Chinese position in second half of 1960s and 1970s not only withered away the anti-imperialism in the real sense of attacking the monopoly capital but also withered away the socialism.

Now Cuba and North Korea are in defending position from imperialism and capitalism. Apart from the fall of socialism and emergence of some former socialist states as neo-colonial 
masters with their specific characterization, socialist and anti-imperialist forces and some Latin American and African countries are upholding the banner of anti-imperialism.

The legacy of Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana who used the word neo-colonialism in 1961 and Frantz Fenon who used the word in 1950 to describe the French policy on Algeria is still carrying weight in Africa against neo-colonialism. The legacy of Jose Marti, and Che Guevara are not only carried forward by the people but some of the Latin American government as well.

In Arab and Middle East countries the Legacy of Nasser is based for their Struggles against their regimes but basically Anti-Imperialist in nature as their rulers are followers of Imperialism. Under neo-colonial phase the struggles are undermined or twisted to benefit of imperialism. The struggles of Arab people are reduced to „spring‟ by imperialist.

Although almost all the governments in the Asia are aligned with neo colonialism, the people of Asia are parading forward against imperialism. Now the local political leaderships are agreed with neo-liberal and neo-colonial policies. Therefore in this backdrop we will understand that the positions of the revolution against the external enemy – the imperialism is immediate first task and the local enemy is the second task are no more valid in the present context. Both the revolutions against imperialism as well as its local collaborators should be carried on parallel solid programme and practice.

Nevertheless we can observe the grouping of communist parties and groups towards Internationalism. There are healthy moves as well as short comings of their grouping but believed to be led towards healthy and constructive discourse. We hope for better through communist international discourse to build up correct and strong international on the basis of Anti-Imperialism in order to over throw the neo-colonial system and neo-liberalism and replace with appropriate socialist Economic base and super structure.

There are other broader International forums against Imperialism. The works of International Anti-Imperialist Coordinating Committee‟s (IACC) are commendable . It consist of revolutionary communist parties of the countries of the world i.e.Workers World Party of America, Socialist Unity Centre of India, Socialist Party of Bangladesh, Nepal Maoist Party and our Ceylon Communist Unity centre and many mass organizations, National Liberation movements like Palestine People Liberation front, and Lebanon Anti-Imperialist Forum. The IACC has declared to observe the 6th of August the Hiroshima day as the Anti- Imperialist day.

With all these we state that these moves both the grouping of world communist parties and the broader Anti-Imperialists are not adequate to face the challenges of neo-colonialism the present phase of Imperialism.

The need of hour is to build up strong Anti-Imperialist movement internationally as well as internally.

Further we should keep in our mind the writings of Lenin in the concluding part of Imperialism the Highest stage of capitalism. „The fight against Imperialism is a sham and Humbug unless it is inseparably bound up with the fight against opportunism.

3. Neo-colonial and Neo-liberal attacks of Imperialism on the people of Ceylon

The Ceylonese elites who have taken over the political power from British Colonialist in 1948 continued with the same colonial Economic policies despite some radical changes taken place through nationalization of assets and business controlled by the foreigners especially the British companies in 2nd half of 1950, first half of 1960s and 1970s.

These attempts were not successful to mobilize the national capital or capitalist classes. Instead there were some moves were taken place to monopolize the state capital.

The enacting of 1972 constitution and repealing British made Soulbury Constitution it was aimed by Sinhala elites to completely remove the clutches of Imperialism. Despite, the fact that Ceylon was being systematically absorbed by Neo-Colonialism through the debt trap of International financial Institutions like World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Asian Development Bank etc. During that time although Ceylonese ruling political Leadership of SLFP was active in Non- aligned movement against Imperialism, the Implementation of Neo- colonial agendas have weakened the tendency.

Even in these premises it is being argued by some of the Marxists that Ceylon is a semi- colonial and semi feudal state. Our position is that even according the definition of Chinese Communist Party in 1960s Ceylon was never a semi colony but it was a colony and thereafter (1948) it has become neo-colony.

Further there is an argument that Ceylon has become politically freed country only after enactment of 1972 Constitution. If that is so Ceylon would not be semi-colony after that. Certainly after the introduction of 1978 constitution the state has become constitutionally fully subservient to Neo-colonialism by facilitating for open economy.

The adaptation of open economy in 1977 intensified the monopoly of finance capital in Ceylon and the policies of Imperialist globalization have been fully adopted in 1980s.

In second half of 1990s almost all the state controlled business and enterprises were privatized according to the re-structure and re construction of economy of World Bank and IMF thus neo-liberalism has fully absorbed the economy.

The incumbent Mahinda Regime has further taken the country for the task of Neo-Liberalism the economic policy of Neo-colonialism.

These developments have changed the economy of the country where feudalism no more exist but only in some of the cultural aspect of the present regime.

The present regime is neo- conservative but adopting the neo-liberalism the economic base structure of neo-colonialism.

The character of the Ceylon state is neo-colony, the ruling classes are capitalists and bureaucratic capitalists and their ruling is collaborated with Neo-conservative, saffron fascist forces, fundamentalist and majority chauvinist nationalists.

This rule is endorsed by the reformist and purported leftist forces which are social majority chauvinist and are aligned with the present regime.

In this situation there is no more the relative progressive section of National capitalist as there is no existence of national capital. In this back ground we have to analyse this country as a Neo-colony and the ruling classes are clients or stooges of the Neo colonialism.

Now before I brief the areas or aspects of Neo-colonial Neo-liberal attacks on Ceylon people will try to define the people of Ceylon. By and large the working people including physical and brain workers, peasants and other exploited classes, on the basis of nationalities and societies wise the Sinhala, Ceylon Tamil, Muslim and Upcountry Tamil nationalities and burger, aborigines and other ethnic groups are Ceylon people. This includes the suppressed women, youth, children and marginalized sections of the people.

These people are attacked by the ruling classes their allies of Ceylon and the Imperialist forces practicing neo-colonialism. Neo-colonialism is practiced through economic base structure military agendas and through intervening in the issues of nationality question in Ceylon. But Imperialism is narrowly interpreted as US and European Union but it should be broadened to other countries like India and China as well. Some of the political analysts are giving a wrong picture about the economic interests of India and China on Ceylon.

 In fact they are also imperialists and have neo-colonial grips over Ceylon. The said analysts elucidate that economic domination has been decentralized or shifted to Asia and they differentiate the economy of Asia that is the emergence of dominance of India and China are progressive.

They try to similarise their position with the identification of Karl Marx the Asiatic made of production.

This is an unscientific and non-class approach. China openly declares that they do not interfere with the politics of other countries but only deal with them economically and this is supported by some of the so-called Marxist who cannot understand or apply the definition of imperialism by Lenin. A stronger country can control other countries by economic domination virtually the dominating country become colonial master and dominated become colonies.

India is with its bourgeois democratic political frame work day to day centralizing the power with legislation, executive measures and judicial system and same time it is intensifying its Imperialist programme on other countries. India‟s capital has taken the shape of global capital. In deeper sense Ceylon has become a colony of Indian too.

On the other side China which has transformed proletarian dictatorship into bureaucratic dictatorship 1980s and now with the rigid political structure, internally implementing neo- liberal economic policies and externally the neo-colonial policies – thus made Ceylon too, a neo-colony to China.

Prior to 1948 at a given time Ceylon was a colony for one Imperialist country. Now at given time it is a neo-colony of many Imperialist countries thus a special feature of neo colonialism. A given territory could be colony for many Imperialist Countries and forces under neo- colonial phase, the system of imperialism indirectly colonize a country not necessarily by a single imperialist country. Globalized finance capital has taken a shape of corporate capital thus warrants the state of colonies to act as legitimized corporate bodies to facilitate the neo- liberal policies.

It is very much obvious that Ceylon is trapped by neo-colonialism of three main Imperialist forces namely US-Europe Imperialist force, India and China are coupled with by their economic policies and military interests.

I. Nationality Question

All the three forcers above said are using the nationality question of Ceylon for their benefits. The colonialism inherited the nationality question to the independent state but as it is not being solved, inherited to neo-colonial phase as well. As colonialism benefitted out of the nationality question, the neo-colonialism is also being benefitted.

Sinhala bourgeois Leadership of pre-independence was compromising and divisive to the freedom movement and therefore they had failed to unite all nationalities and societies of Ceylon. The freedom movement was divided by ethnically or nationally. This was used by the British Imperialism to divide and rule the Ceylon people.

Even after 1948 the Sinhala bourgeois has systematically established their hegemony over the other nationalities for example they denied citizenship to the Up country Tamils and defranchised them in 1948.

They passed the Sinhala only official Language Act in 1956 and denied the Tamil Language right.

They colonized the Sinhala majority person in the traditional or communal areas of Tamils that is North and Eastern part of Ceylon. By passing the 1972 constitution they established the hegemony of Buddhist Religion.

By introducing the system called standardization in selecting students for University studies denied the right of Tamil students even though they have passed the examination in merits. This macro nationalism has been institutionalized as Sinhala Buddhist majority chauvinism.

There were state patronized riots on the Tamils in 1958, 1977, 1981 and 1983. The phenomenon of oppression of nationalities very well manifested in Ceylon too as it is inevitable anywhere else in the capitalist system.

This manifestation has invoked counter reactions of the oppressed nationalities especially the Ceylon Tamils. These repercussions developed towards demand for a separate state for Tamils in the North and East.

Almost all the regimes of Ceylon carried on military onslaughts and police atrocities on Tamils. There oppression had led the Tamil youths to take up arms. Their resistance was answered by the ruling classes of macro Sinhala nationalist, chauvinism by state terrorism.

The Mahinda Regime has waged full pledged war against the Tamils in the guise of war against Terrorism and humanitarian operation in 2009. This was supported by all the Imperialist countries.

As the result of the war considerable numbers of lives of the oppressed nationalities were taken away and the gaps among the nationalities were rather widened.

As the result of the war the lives and properties of Tamils were lost and by and large the Tamils have suffered a lot.

The injustice caused to Tamils are now interpreted and considered as was crimes, violations of human rights and humanitarian Laws and the issues is in the hands of the very imperialists which were supporting Ceylon Government in war against the Tamils.

Military triumphalism of Mahinda Regime with collaboration of external forces over LTTE which claimed itself to be the sole representative of Tamils and functioned on behalf of Tamil people despite all its misguided tactics of struggles such as individual assassination and onslaughts on ordinary people and continued with its armed resistance against the state until may 2009,has denied the political right of Tamils and relief for the Tamils against the war crimes and violations of human rights and humanitarian Laws.

This situation has given more space for the U.S. and India to consolidate their domination on Ceylon. China in the guise of supporting Mahinda regime against imperialism has got further opportunity to practice its neo-colonialism

India which nourished Tamil youth militants to fight the Ceylon state and in 1987 it has brought Ceylon to its knees by the 1987 Indo-Ceylon Peace accord. 

This did not give expected colonial benefits to India through that agreement as the situation changed due to the non compromising position of LTTE.

Thereafter during the period of the so called peace process Indian Imperialist were sidelined and by Norway facilitated US western agenda was pushed further on Ceylon.

Although now India is a partner of globalization with U.S. it has a separate agenda on Ceylon.

China too has a separate to dominate Ceylon.

US passing resolutions on war crimes committed, want of reconciliation commitment in other states in Geneva is another activity of US Imperialism. The arbitrary acts due triumphalism of Mahinda Regime and failing to heed the promises given to US and other European countries and India who also helped Ceylon state war against Tamil people have pushed Ceylon to face Geneva threats.

This is the contradiction between the jingoism of Buddhist macro nationality which waged the war and the Imperialism who aided and abetted to the unjust war on Tamil people.

Unfortunately the issues of Tamils are taken by US to get Ceylon further subservient to U.S. Imperialism. Mahinda regime is trying to get all the people of Ceylon to involve by its side. Even though the people are not a party to the issues in Geneva.

At this stage the question to be raised whether Tamil people are traitors of Ceylon and working against sovereignty and integrity of Ceylon by taking the issue to the international forum. The internal adjudication and adjudicators are expected to safe guard the interest of the internal rulers and it is equal in the international forums as well, where Imperialist forces‟ interests are assured.

With this understanding people exhaust all the internal as well as international litigations to establish their rights. The victims cannot wait until a just adjudication established free from capitalism and Imperialism. Therefore the even if the Tamils are exhausted by internal and external litigations they are not supposed to be criminalizing Ceylon.

On this matter the issue is whether to accept the grievances of Tamils and other oppressed nationalities and if accepted, what are the solutions for it? On the one hand the problem of the Tamil nationality is holden by the Tamil reactionary capitalist classes and on the other hand

Tamils are oppressed and suppressed by the Sinhala reactionary, capitalist class. These two extremist leadership have not only ruined the country but also equally responsible for submitting the country more and more to different Imperialist countries especially to U.S., Europe, India and China through this unsolved situation of nationality question as well.

In these brief understanding the nationality question has become common ground for the intensification of Neo-colonial attacks via its base economic structure and super structures and also fascism and totalitarianism of internal ruling classes have been established in the back drop of Nationality question.

Therefore, no internal and external political freedom is possible for people of Ceylon unless the nationality questions, the major issue, is solved.

The class content of this major issue cannot be neglected but basically the national aspiratory rights are an issue of democratic question or bourgeois issue.

The ruling classes as well as other forces influenced by Sinhala Buddhist Macro nationality chauvinism and fascism are obstacles for the solution of national question. The other sections of so called leftist forces which are social majority chauvinists and they are also in another way of obstacle.

Social minority chauvinists are not seen among Tamil, there are forces which support the social majority chauvinism which is very unhealthy and against the right to self determination of nations and nationalities. This also indirectly strengthens the majority chauvinism. These forces are social majority chauvinists impetus of minority.

So the basic to avoid the Imperial attacks through the nationality issue, is to accept the existence of nationality question and to recognize correct form of solution based on right to self determination of nations and nationalities including the right to secession and the advance applicability of it to unite all nations and nationalities with mutual confidence of voluntary and fraternal agreement. 

The right to self-determination which bears both sides they are secession and unification as sides of a coin. We should not leave the nationality question for the solution of „International Brotherhood‟ of globalization which further formants national Chauvinism, racialism, parochialism, regionalism-jingoism as well as religious-ethnic, caste feelings to precipitate, divide and conflict the various section of masses of people

II. Economic attacks

U.S. and some of the European countries Japan and South Korea are leading in Export and Import trading with Ceylon. U.S., China and India and Russia have made free trade agreements with Ceylon. India is pressuring more and more concession from Ceylon in trading and even to accommodate their work force specially the professional to work freely in Ceylon.

The resources of Ceylon including mines are given to multinational companies owned by the capitalist of Imperialist countries. The resources are exploited and wasted by imperialist thus destroy the environment China has taken over constructions of Harbor, Airports, Highways and Bridges where even physical workers are Chinese- The highways and some ports given to Chinese to maintain and manage and the entire income generate for them to go to them for long time.

Highways, bridges, harbours and airports will be kept under control of China and other countries for long years. 

Ceylon has agreed to sign a memorandum with China to accommodate Chinese employees to work in Ceylon under Chinese companies disregarding the minimum accepted norms of our labour laws.

Indians are given with lands in Ceylon for cultivation. Japan has established it domination through technology motor and development projects such as Upper Kothmale hydro power project.

The Tea and Rubber plantation are given to multinational companies (most them have majority Indian shares) on Lease for 99 years. Even our essential need of food and clothes are imported and we are mostly depended on Imports. Most of the Industries which were owned by the state are given to multinational companies. Ceylon is fully debt trapped by World Bank and IMF and their guidelines and policies are followed by Ceylon government.

There are more investments on tourism through the business considered to be immoral such as casino, gambling and sexual business in the increase. Apart from this Ceylon has become a hub of drug trafficking.

To attract and safe guard Foreign capital Ceylon government has de-regularized the fiscal policies and relaxed the state control over it. The laws are relaxed and new laws are enacted to safeguard the neo-liberal economy. Education, Health and Transport are very widely privatized and these services have become purely business.

There will be a more and more free trade zones majority which will be opened to the imperialists to have their business where the applicability of normal laws are execluded.

Now there is no national or self sufficiency in economy and the country is depended on foreign finance capital.

Our national production rate is 16% of the Gross Domestic Production.

The Judicial procedures are used to suppress the demand of Labour. In this situation it is very clear that the Neo-liberal economic policies are very well established in Ceylon.

The Imperialist countries are free to exploit our country under Neo-liberalism.

So we have to think appropriate socialist economic system to replace neo liberal economy and I am on the opinion that the dire need is to find new interpretations and identifications of new contemporary capital and the labour of current.

These are necessary to be developed to meet internal and external challenges of neo liberalism and replace it by unconquerable socialist system.

III. Military attacks

Ceylon has been pressurized to sign military pacts with Imperialist countries and some of the pacts are signed.

In 1987 Indo-Ceylon peace pact was signed in 2007 Defence agreement with U.S. signed Further there are military agreements to have military training, combine sea patrolling, space surveillance, arms procurement signed with India, China and Russia. These military pacts will

be used by Imperialist countries to use Geographical strategic Importance of Ceylon for their economic, political and military Agendas of neo-colonialism. Sea water of Ceylon is now very conveniently used by the foreign forces.

Although the Ceylonese state is militarized and security forces are well trained and centralized it is not Independent but dependent with Imperialism.

We can observe military fascism, bureaucratic fascism and saffron fascism in Ceylon which help the Ceylon state suppress the voice of the people against imperialism as well.

IV.Cultural Attacks

It is evident that imperialism in the neo-colonial phase, besides penetrating the farthest reaches of economics, politics, political economy and political geography has also penetrated in culture in every country within its reach. Imperialism through cultural attacks the countries mass organization, liberation struggles and exercises its hegemony over the minds of the people through pervasive cultural industries.

Imperialism not only commoditized culture but also infiltrated into minds of the people through imposing cultural issues in many ways in favour of neo-colonialism and neo- liberalism.

Individualism promoted by projecting as life style and attitudes of affluent classes as the norm thereby weakening collectivism and shared public interests. The individualism is coupled with consumerism as life style. Media including electronic media in the form of television and internet communications networking has invaded all homes to push the people further into consumerism. Market forces decide even the human desires like love and sex.

New things such as NGOism, imperialist human rights, good governance and post-modernism have been infiltrated into the minds of youths and educated.

In Ceylon the national jingoistic culture and orthodox or neo-conservatism cannot meet the challenges of the imperialist culture. Humanist, nationalist, progressive cultural moves are also limited.

International, national, regional as well as internal resistances are essential against imperialist culture, and also stronger people's culture is the foremost form to meet the cultural imperialism.

4.Tasks of the people

The Suriyamal (Sunflower) movement, Jaffna Youth Congress, All Ceylon Indian Worker Federation led by Natesha Iyar, Lanka Sama Samaja Paty (LSSP), Communist Party (CP) and leftist forces were active in mobilizing people against British colonialism in the pre- independence period. However the leftist forces did not succeed to lead people against British colonialism.
Although the Ceylon Labour Union led by A.E. Gunasinghe did part in anti-colonialist struggles, in the later part of 1930s it had adopted racist and fascist policies. The Sinhala Maha Sabhawa, the Buddhist organization led by Anagarika Dharmapala, the Ceylon National Congress were seen as anti-colonial forces but as the result of their divisive racist and Sinhala national position they failed unite all the people of Ceylon against British colonialism. Thus no strong anti-imperialist movement and struggles against imperialism in the pre independent period.
The same divisive position of Ceylon Sinhala bourgeois continued even after the political power was handed over to them by British colonial masters in 1948.

The Sinhala bourgeois and specially United National Party (UNP) the political leadership of comprador bourgeois continued to collaborate with the British imperialism and submitted the country to other imperialist countries as well. Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) the other bourgeois party with its Sinhala nationalist stand has taken some steps against British imperialism i.e. nationalization of Plantations, assets and businesses owned by British companies. British Navy was sent away from Trincomalee harbour. After 1972 the judicial appellate power vested with British Privy Council has been taken away, it has taken major role in the Non-aligned Movement.

After 1980s the aforesaid differences of SLFP with the UNP have been diminished. Both parties are in favour of neo-colonial and neo-liberal policies of IMF, World Bank and other organizations of imperialism and imperialist countries.

The LSSP (Trotskyite) SLCP (revisionist) and other leftist aligned with SLFP have no proper analysis of imperialism and now being partners of Mahinda regime they cannot be genuine anti-imperialists.

Other Trotskyite parties such as Nawa Samasamaja Party (NSSP), United Socialist Party (USP) as well as People‟s Liberation Front (JVP) have obvious confined their anti- imperialism to their May Day slogans. They also have proper understanding of neo- colonialism and neo-liberalism.

In 1960 and 1970s the Ceylon Communist Party led by N. Shanmugathasan has under taken tremendous tasks against Kuruchevite revisionism and the social imperialism of Soviet Union. Shanmugathasan has correctly identified the three world theory of Chinese Communist Party as class collaboration. But he was not successful to build up a broader anti-imperialist movement as well as revolutionary political party.

The New-Democratic Marxist Leninist Party although has developed ties with anti-imperialist movements and communist parties of other countries, its anti-imperialism is ceremonially observed.

The Frontline Socialist Party‟s (FLSP) position of anti-imperialism is yet to be known.

The Tamil National Alliance (TNA) and other Tamil nationalist parties are not anti-imperialist as they believe that they can win over the national aspiration of Tamils with the help of imperialist countries.

In these situations the people are divided on ethnicity and religion faith on the other hand we have to accept that there is no working class revolutionary party with anti-capitalist and anti- imperialist, socialist revolutionary programme.

Therefore the tasks of the people against the neo-colonial and neo-liberal policies of imperialism are rather, harder, deeper and broader.

The discourse among leftist and democratic forces should begin to formulate anti-imperialist democratic programme with the unification all the nationalities and other sections of people of Ceylon. Since the nationality question has become major issue and debacle to the unity among all the people the solution should be formulated on the basis of right to self-determination of nationalities into the anti- imperialist democratic programme and the programme of the struggle of nationalities should be incorporated with anti-imperialism.

No anti-imperialism is genuine and possible unless it incorporates the programme of democratic rights of the nationalities including the right to self- determination with right to secession in order to build up unity among nationalities with mutual confidence and voluntary and fraternal agreement.

On the other hand it should be articulated that the right to self-determination should not undermine the unity of the people and their revolutionary might and should not go along with entente of imperialism and them to be yoke of imperialism. No right to self-determination is meaningful unless it is anti-imperialist.

Anti-imperialism is a base for the working class and Marxist - Leninists but it is not confined to them alone. The larger sections of people are anti-imperialist for different reasons thus require a broader anti-imperialist programme with unification of all the people against neo- colonialism, neo-liberalism of imperialism.

Moreover micro level activities to be carried out to address the mental position of the people and make them anti-imperialist even in their day to day affairs to build up anti-imperialist cultural hegemony over the cultural imperialism.
The anti-imperialist movement should work hand in hand with counterpart movements of other countries and international anti-imperialist movements.

We Ceylon Communist Unity Centre is a secretarial member of International Anti-imperialist Committee which has declared to observe the 06th of August every year the Hiroshima day as anti-imperialist day on our motion.

At the 3rd international Anti-imperialist conference held at Dhaka in 2011, Further there was resolution passed in that conference about the imperialist interference in Ceylon via nationality question in Ceylon. “This conference demands that the nationality question of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) be solved politically by finding just solution acceptable to the Tamils and oppressed nationalities of Ceylon. It further demands investigation into the alleged war crime committed by security forces of Ceylon, in order to avoid intervention or invasion by imperialist powers using war crimes as a plea” (resolution No 21 passed by international Anti-imperialist conference held in Dhaka 2011)

So we need internal as well as external anti-imperialist programmes and organizations to fight imperialism. We determine that our ultimate goal is to eradicate imperialism from the universe and replace it with eternal scientific socialism and to march towards declassed society; that is communism.


This lecture is not a new thesis or innovative presentation but an effort to submit the readings and experiences with regard to the currents of imperialism. Further this is an effort to prove that this era still remains as imperialist era and want of scientific socialist revolution as alternative. The existence of imperialism was exposed by Lenin and he proved in his writings and practices that socialism is the only alternative to capitalism or imperialism. Thus this era is Leninist era as well.

Therefore still Leninism is the basic weapon to defeat imperialism but with ideological innovations, new strategies and tactics.

Long live Marxism Leninism Down down Capitalism, imperialism

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