Monday, May 22, 2017

Celebrating 50 Years since Naxalbari :Part 1 by Harsh Thakor

These Articles reflect the personal opinions of Harsh Thakor






The Naxalbari armed peasant struggle defined a new epoch in the history of India.

It sowed the seeds for the emancipation of the Indian people like no event after 1947 and continued the legacy of the glorious anti-colonial movements and the Telengana armed struggle.

It illuminated the flame of Maoism and made a landmark contribution in demarcation the forces supporting revisionism and social imperialism..

I pay red salutes to every single martyr of Naxalbari and those who carried on it's legacy later in Andhra Pradesh,  Bihar, Jharkand and Punjab.

It created a spiritual rennaisance amongst the youth of India who wee inspired in lighting the spark of Maoism all over the country..No doubt the movement veered into left adventurism but neverthless it sowed the seeds for the growth of Indian Maoism and the insurgency today in Dandkaranya.

No doubt Comrade Charu Mazumdar resorted to a left-adventurist line by abandoning mass organizations but still he was the pioneer in demarcating Indian communists from revisionism and Soviet Social Imperialism and in upholding the Chinese path of Cultural Revolution.Charu Mazumdar played a great role in the Naxalabri struggle itself .

Even if it earlier it  launched a thorough self-criticism f the Charu Mazumdar line and rectified it to this day the C.P.I.(Maoist) owes it's achievements to the roots laid by Comrade CM.

Upholding path of armed agrarian revolution for so many decades give the C.P.I.(Maoist) a cutting edge who proved the validity of creating armed squad resistance .

It has to be saluted for lighting the torch of the legacy of Indian Maoism as in Dandkaranya where red light is literally shimmering.

No way can we say its is a modification of the Charu Mazumdar, adventurist line...The PU group only launched mass resistance struggle till 1987 but built an outstanding peasant movement through the M.K.S.S.

Today the C.P.I.(Maoist) has written anew epoch in Dandkaranya region by building the Jantana sarcars and their achievements can at least compare with that of Chinese red army in the 1930's or 40's or later Telengana from 1946-51 and Sendero Luminoso from 1980-92.

They have not built base areas with people self -governing or running themselves or a complete parallel power but their sacrifices have proved dividend as they have given genuine armed military resistance to the state.

At least in important respects the C.PI.(Maoist) implements mass line whatever it' s overall weakness in spreading to plain areas.

One error is considering path of boycott as elections as a strategic path as still I feel conditions are not completely ripe for tactical use of election boycott.

Today in light of the ascendancy of Hindu comunal fascists,the fascist onslaught of corporates,the suppression of peasant struggles for right to land and oposing land grabbing ,the organized attack on the right of workers particularly on contract to organize and the repression of revolutionary intellectuals the politics of agrarian revolution has imbibed during naxalbari is all the more significant It should burn like a red flame in the fields,factories and Universities.

True we have to apply the politics of naxalbari adapting to the situation of today when globalisation has penetrated every region.However still feudalism is our main enemy.Politics of Protracted peoples war have to be innovated in light of greater urbanisation,influence of imperialism and capitalism on the society,

Special fronts should be sent up to combat hindu communal fascism through mass revolutionary resistance.

The C.P.I.(Maoist) has resurrected the legacy of the Bolshevik and Chinese Communist parties burning the flame of Maoism. I think the C.P.I.(Maoist) has not developed base areas like the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s or in the Telengana armed struggle from 1946-51.

Neverthless they have built the first re-organized Marxist-Leninist Maoist party of it’s kind and the merger of M.C.C.I and PW group as well as the 2007 conference will be written forever in the annals of world revolutionary movement.

Great self criticism and humility was displayed in the 2007 event and I rever the words of comrade Kishen,(spokesman)former secretary of M.C.C.who admitted errors like revisionist tendencies and sectarianism openly in an Interview.

Inspite of a great setback in Andhra Pradesh from 199-2002 it boldly admitted it’s downfall and consolidated itself with phenomenal tenacity in Chattisgarh.

The Chinese party hardly faced the obstacles of the Indian Maoist party like casteism, communalism and cultural diversity.

The C.P.I.(Maoist) although commiting serious mistakes in mass line and military line have developed some of the most creative forms of work.

We have to ward of propoganda by journals like ‘Frontier’ that claim that it is divided into various parties in Jharkhand or are violating Mao TseTung’s ideology and human rights like ‘Red Star’.

In fact in recent years Kolkata based journal‘Frontier’ has ridiculed the Maoist party virtually calling it a military outfit with no proper strategy.

I believe the party has made errors of democratic practice within mass organizations in terms of developing democratic functioning but one has to consider the complexities of a situation when conducting armed struggle.

It’s principle weakness is also inability to sufficiently protect itself as a party by mastering Leninist or Maoist doctrine.There are also sharp tendencies of military approach replacing massline and confusing the party with the military organization.

In spite of criticisms made in 1978,the errors of the past have not been completely rectified.

On the theoretical front the they have not fully developed the theory of protracted war in context of the subjective conditions of India and there has been a tendency to mechanically copy the Chinese Experience.Not sufficient work has been created in urban areas

Neverthless they have done justice to the sword of ‘Maoism' by forming the 1st ever Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army in India , built itself without creating any personality cult which is remarkable and have managed to devise retaliatory forms of struggle to defend itself.

The Peoples Liberation guerrilla army blended the skill of an architect with the innovation of a musical composer .It has combined the defensive power of a boulder with the aggression of a tiger..Above all,it was not mechanical in it’s functioning.,doing it’s best to adapt to the Indian conditions.

The party gave the most fitting answer to all intellectuals who were critical of the Maoist theory of protracted peoles war..The R.P.C’s led by the Maoist party have weakness in terms of of democratic functioning and I feel the party must study the works of comrades like T.Nagi Reddy and D.V.Rao.

We must also remember the great contribution of Kondappali Seetharamiah (died in2002) who formed the PWG and of the role of the Maoist Communist Centre.

Today bourgeois circles maintain that there is enmity between M.C.C.and PWG Cadres which is false.

I will never forget the admiration Professor G.N.Saibaba had of the C.P.I.(Maoist) which he placed in another league from any other group.

I recommend all readers to read both his 2012 and 2008 interview on the internet where he elaborates the contribuition of the Maoist party.

I recommend all cadres to read the document of the unified Moaist party published in 2004 on Marxism-Leninism-Maoism which elaborates the development of Maoism dialectically.

I also admire the interviews in 2004 ,where both the erstwhile secretaries,Ganapathy and Kishen self –critically asses the past and sum up the negative and positive events.

The C.P.I.(Maoist) has given a new dimension to the movement in India by functioning as a centralized party and blending the armed struggle with mass movements.

Professor G.N.Saibaba superbly portrays the building and functioning of the Janata Sarcars which encourage independent peoples Initiative.

The research writings of Gautam Navlakaha depicted how much the Maoist party strived for developing democratic functioning within the village councils.In Bihar and Jharkahand the Kranitkari Kisan committees have been consolidated.Film maker Sanjay Kak feels the Maoists have created history in Dandkaranya..

The C.P.I.(Maoist) is reminiscent of a river flowing ,encountering the most hazardous of storms . In Orissa they have shown great creativity in intervening in Malkangiri and building the Chulia Adivasi Sangh.It has started moving like a fish in water in Orissa and created embryonic structures of power.In Lalgarh the party made serious errors and achieved a major set back..This exposed it’s line and practice in plain areas.

Calling for unity with Mamta Banerjee was  a major blunder by Kishenji and functioning so openly.The strength of subjective factors wa sunder estimated .Neverthless it gave life and ressurrected a movement no force did.

One of the most noteworthy aspects was the principled unity of the 2parties into the C.P.I.(Maoist) and the dialectical approach of the 2 parties. Functioning as a united party has greatly boosted the morale of cadres and members.

There is propaganda in bourgeois media that ex-.M.C.C.cadre have had ideologically and moral conflicts with former P.W.G.cadre and feel there has been discrimination. This has to be combated openly.The party reports consistently defend the importance of the P.L.G.A..

What is significant is that the united party has analyzed the errors of the former constituents from flexibility,to dogmatism and loose party structure. One of the most disturbing factors was the clashes in the late 1990’s between the 2 organizations,who ultimately resolved to settle their differences.

Ironically after over 2 decades the 2 groups merged after negotiations in 1981 and 1995 failed. The ultimate merger was like reaching the summit of a mountain peak after facing the most hazardous of expeditions and treading the steepest paths. The achievements in the last 10 years have surpassed those of all the previous eras of erstwhile constituient groups.

Critiques like Sumanta Banerjee and K.N.Ramchandran(C.P.I.-M.L-Red Star) openly condemn the Maoist party as a terrorist force or consisting of armed squads of roving bands.

There is an erroneous tendency that equates the Maoist party line with ‘Che Guevarism or focoism.True at times there are deviations but the party strives to implement Maoist protracted peoples war.

The late Dipankar Chakraborty made an objective analysis on Lalgarh but was over-critical of the Maoist accusing them of hjijacking the movement.

The most supportive elements outside the C.P.I.(Maoist) have been from revolutionary activists in Punjab who have combated ‘Operation Green Hunt’ in a most systematic and determined fashion and defended the Maoist movement.

The Lok Morcha ,Punjab organized 3 showings of the film ‘Red Ants Dream’in various districts of Punjab which had a great following in Bhatinda.The rural class of Punjab could identify with the movement of the Maoists.The Lok Morcha,Punjab office-bearers state that openly speaking against the Maoist movement or being overtly critical is speaking against the very revolutionary cause.

I deeply appreciate the answer given by the Maoist Party Spokesman in Economic and Political Weekly to the criticism of Sumanta Banerjee in 2009 and to the articles in Bengali journals ‘Aneek’ and ‘Shramjeevi.’

The author would have liked a greater liaison of the C.P.I.(Maoist) with the forces of the Communist Party Re-Organization Centre of India(M.L..),who have a sound theoretical understanding and similar line.

I also wish it could learn more from the Communist Party of Philippines on how to correctly develop a Bolshevized party structure ,build up urban work and legal fronts and develop the mass line .

It should critically assess the errors of the Peruvian Communist Party and why it capitulated.

It also needs to back a broader based democratic rights movement and not turn it into a mere party front.

In recent times the Maoist movement has even spread to Kerala amd comrades like Ajitha and Kapu Devraj have been martyred .

Displaying meticuluos political skill the Maoists have spread their wings to Kerala

One of the most heartening experiences is to hear the voice of Comrdae Vara Vara Rao of Virasam who feels the roots of  a new world have already been created in Dandkaranya.

Many meetings of Virasam represent the voice of this struggle and intellectuals  like have even researched and written a book on them.Intellectual Rajani Desai of RUPE ,even with concrete differences admires the Maoist party for fighting for protracted peoples war path.Yatindra Kumar ,secretary of C.P.I.(M.L.) New democracy although differing with line recognizes the movement the Maoist party has built up in Dandkaranya.Nazar Singh Boparai from Punjab  , an ex associate of C.P.R.CI.-M.L feels that the Maoist party is ringing the bell of true massline.

Intellectual Professor Manoranjan Mohanty feel sit is the most organized and potent force in India challenging the Indian state.Jaison Cooper and other human rights comrades also feel that it defines the Indian  revolutionary movement.

Even with differences Dalit intellectual Anand Teltumbde upholds the Maoists as the true fighters for revolutionary democracy. 

Ritesh Vidhyart and other comrades of Bhagt Singh Chatra Morcha of Utar Pradesh feel that the Maoist party is the most genuine group fighting for massline.The best intellectual defence of the  Maoists is by professor Amit Bhattacharya.

Major open critiques of the C.P.I.(Maoist) are the K.N. Ramchandran led C.P.I.(M.L.) Red Star group , the C.P.I.(M.L.) Liberation and  to an extent formally the Rahul foundation group.Red star openly callsthe Maoist party terrorist,’Lin Biaoist” or ‘anarchist’ who carry out money extortions.

Although opposing state attacks on the Maoists they class them as dangerous as the C.P.M.It openly condemned ‘Jan Myradal’s ‘Red Star over India’ as distorting facts.

Rahul group has toned criticism a lot but still feel  they are a cruder version of C.P.I.(M.L.) of Charu Mazumdar and although revolutionaries represent ‘terrorism.’ 

Liberation group has acted as an agent of the state to defeat the Maoist struggles.

Strangely it is the Communist Party of India leaders who are more vocal in condemning Operation Greenhunt in Chattisgarh .

C.P.I.(M.L.) supporting Kanu Sanyal line and U.C.C.R.I.(M.L.)D.V.Rao group are much less vocal ,but occasionally term the Maoist party practice as ‘romantic’ or ‘left-adventurist.’ Fascinating that in earlier decades like 1980’s  Organization for protection of democratic rights which was part of the All India Federation of Organizations for democratic Rights representing Nagi Reddy line and at stalwart in the democratic rights movement vocally condemned erstwhile C.P.I.(M.L.) peoples war group actions as ‘left-adventurist.’Today similar trends representing democratic Rights movement never condemn Maoist action and claim that  doing that it would be an attack on the people’s movement itself.

This is a marked change in the approach of civil liberties activists.C.P.I.(M.L.) New Democracy which about 2 decades ago virtually launched a tirade aginst the erstwhile PWG today also never is openly critical of Maoist actions.

Intellectual Sumanta Banerjee has virtually turned 180 Degrees from the time he wrote ‘In the Wake of Naxalbari’ and defended C.P.I.(M.L.) calling the Maoist squads  as ‘roving bands.’

Today there is a powerful tendency of  Organization for Protection of Democratic Rights of Andhra Pradesh  related to Red Star  group that attacks actions of the maoist forces which is reactionary.

Association for Democratic Rights,Punjab , takes a very strong stand against condemning Maoist actions in Orissa,Jharkhand and Orissa.Recently

I met some AFDR members who claimed that genuine mass work was initiated by Maoists in Orissa and it was not just armed squad action.

Basically we all revolutionary cadres or sympathisers must realise that by terming the C.P.I.(Maoist ) actions or movement as ‘Left Adventurist’,’Lin Biaoist” and ‘Che Guevarist” we are attacking the very people of India.

Comrades associated with the Communsit Praty Re-Organization Centre of India (M.L.) endorse this view even with important differences.

This is a healthy development as earlier erstwhile U.C.C.R.I-M.L forces from which the originated very strongly condemned armed action sof C.P.I.(M.L.) Peoples War group.

They feel the actions are not just hapahazard but based on planning and organization.

What is heartening today is the unity of democratic forces in combating the fascist Operation green hunt policy.

Impressed with rallies and meetings in Capital of Delhi and in Kolkata last year.

What is most important today is to sharpen the cutting edge of the party and emphasise the relationship between the re-organization of the vanguard party and the agrarian revolution.Mass organization smust alos have the independent identity and not function as mere front organizations.

All the revolutionary groups are components of the eventual party which has to be re-organized.

Even when facing fascistic repression we must revive forms of mass struggle and mass political fronts .

A strategy has also to be developed and formulated in the plain areas where condition svary from those of the forest areas.

Today the C.P.I.(Maoist) is not able to penetrate the plain areas, It also does not have a sustained programme in states like Punjab and Uttar Pradesh even if it has pockets of support.

What is significant is that feudalism dooes not exist in it’s classical form in those states nor is possible today to launch agrarian revolutionary movement.

Although officialy not banned  in states like West Bengal or Bihar in the moral sense Revolutionary Democratic Front cannot function openly .The party has to devise forms of mass struggles ,particularly in urban and palin areas.

Quoting Tilak Gupta “It may be safely anticipated that Maoists would continue to remain an attractive propostion to tens of millions of our impoverished and oppressed masses  so long as the unfinished business of agrarian reforms and solution to elementary livelihood problems  remain incomplete in  various parts of India.”Gautam Navlakha on movement in Dandakaranya

We have to refute intellectuals like Sumanta Banerjee who term the Maoist armed squads as roving bands and claim that protracted peoples War is outdated for Indian Conditions.

We have to learn from the sacrifices of comrades like Kishenji.We have to also refute intellectuals who claim that India has reached capitalist development and that agrarian relations are no longer semi-feudal

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