Saturday, August 25, 2012

Tribute to Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union(APRSU) by Indian Comrade

The Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union carved out a permanent niche in the annals of the history of the revolutionary student movement worldwide. Probably no student movement worldwide made such efforts to emulate the experience of the Russian and Chinese Revolution. It reminded you of a ship surviving in the stormiest of seas  as the APRSU weathered every storm in it’s journey.

It  traversed the wildest of forests. Lighting the torch of Mao Tse Tung Thought. Words simply cannot describe the sacrifices of the martys which should be inscribed in Gold. 20 years ago the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union faced it’s official ban.(the same time the C.P.I-M.L.-Peoples War Group was banned)

This organization played a historic role in building the students movement in Andhra Pradesh, for 3 decades. It waged struggles on all fronts, playing a major role in building the Rytu Collie Sanghams (peasant associations)and Radical Youth League committees. It also built the Singanakeri workers Union in 1982.

Significantly, on 14th April,1972 Student George Reddy, leader of Progressive Democratic Students  was martyred. George was the architect of the Revolutionary Student movement in Andhra Pradesh which had it’s genesis in the Progressive Democratic Students and ‘Vishaka ‘group.This year on 14th April was the 40th anniversary of his martyrdom at the hands of ABVP goondas.

This year is  the 25th martyrdom anniversary year of Women comrade Madidila Sarna Latha , Ravinder Reddy, Gogu Venkanna Veeraiah and Gajjavelli Sammanna , 20th martyrdom anniversary of Com. M.Srivasa Rao and M.Vijay Kumar and  30TH martyrdom year of Com.Sheshaiah and Gangarajan. All these martyrs contributions have to be written in gold letters. 

Other significant comrades who were martyred were Com.Janardhan, Com.Chandrashekar, woman comrade Janjanam Savitri , Raju, Mahesh and Veerana.The majority of these martyrs were simply killed in cold blood and the police fabricated false cases that they were killed in encounters after staging attacks. 

Often the bodies were not returned to the parents and cremations taken place without the parents or relatives. Today let us dip our blood in memory of all the martyrs of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union.

Important Martyrs of A.P.R.S.U.(reference from ‘EVEN IN DEATH WE SHALL DARE - In memory of Martyrs by AIRSF)

On 24th July1998 ,Comrade Ashok Janardhan wrote a chapter in the history of the Revolutionary Student Movement in India through his martyrdom. He lit a red torch and spread his message like extinguishing a red light. He was a seed through which several red roses would bloom. With 2 other Comrades ,namely Comrade Ramanaiah and Comrade Ramesh,he was killed in a fake encounter. A day before, the police arrested the 3 comrades and subjected them to severe torture. In a final climax they shot them down and threw their bodies ,in the forests of Warangal district.

After completing his post-graduation in Commerce in 1990 from Osmania University, he chose his path.

In a crucial phase he took on the task of general secretary of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union in 1992. In that period the Andhra Pradesh govt was launching a relentless bout of repression.. Bravely,Comrade Janardhan led a struggle against the capitation fee in 1992.He guided the APRSU to devise tactics to combat the repression .

This was relevant too against the Hindu fascist onslaught. APRSU stated working in primary schools,organizing students for basic facilities under Comrdae Ashok APRSU fought against the decision to close Social Welfare Hostels, which was a legitimate right of the poor students.

It is significant that 37 years ago on the 25th July 1975,a student of the Regional Engineering college, Waranagal ,namely Com Ashok Palle Janardhan who was working amongst the peasantry was assassinated in Giraipally forest in Medak district.

Comrade Surapeneni Janardhan played a prominent role in the formation of APRSU in Waranga and earlier influenced student struggles. He was killed by police in fake encounter on 25th July,1975,along with 3 other comrades.

Chandrashekar played a key role in reviving radical politics in Nizam college.He actively mobilised students in support of reservations and organized a college boycott against the Chundur carnage ,where 311 dalits were brutally hacked. He also organized meetings opposing the New Economic policy,communalism etc.

He also confronted college ragging of ABVP goondas.He organized a struggle against capitation fee and also organized campaign teams opposing chief minister Janardhan Reddy who incited riots where 300 people were killed. He was arrested on false charges . After coming out on bail he led the peroids of underground life, guiding the student movement. He played an important role in the struggle of polytechnic students strike. On October 8th 1994 he was ruthlessly executed by the police..

Comrade Mahesh(Bhupati) played a major role in combating caste oppression. He also played an active role in student struggle forming RSU units in SV degree and polytechnic colleges. Later he played a major role combating anti-Mandal agitation in 1990,during the  reign of the Chenna Redy government.On 31st March 1995 he fell martyr to police bullets.

Women comrade Janjanam Savitri actively participated in the movement of slum dwellers against beautification of cities as well as organized protests against atrocities on women and dowry deaths. She also mobilized students against corrupt authorities and exposed the true nature of the pseudo-student leaders of the Andra University campus.The Chundur massacre changed the complexion of the life of this valiant comrade like a red spark being being set alight..On 21st December 1997 she was assassinated in a police encounter.

Com.Veerana played a major role in the pro-reservation and anti-capitation fee agaitation.He also worked as a volunteer in making the meetings commemorating 20 years of the Revolutionary Writers Association (VRASAM), Jana Natya Mandalai and Rytu Collie Sangham a success.His role after the call of a bandh in closing  a cinema theatre will never be forgotten, after he was threatened by the goondas,attacked and handed over to the police.

Inspite of this he came oput with fresh enthusiasm.On 27th November he fell to police bullets in Warangal in Parkal town.The police lied in their testimony in court that it was an encounter vand it was the Andhra Pradesh Civil liberties committee that revoked the police lies.

Com.M.Srinivasa Rao contributed as a revolutionary writer composing poetry for the revolution. He combated state repression, communalism, defended reservations ,defended the working class rights etc.Earlier he organized factory workers to build  a revolutionary trade Union Movement. 

He was true heir to poet martyr Subbarao Pangrahi,who was killed in the Srikakulam Movement.On 3rd September 1992,sadly he was brutally murdered by the police. At the young age of 23.The fact that he took up his pen to promote the revolution stirred anger in the.ruling classes.

M.Vijay Kumar played a major role in Osmania University engineering college and was elected as secretary of APRSU in 1987.He was always in the forefront of resisting ABVP goondas.He left his engineering studies after being a brilliant student to join the revolutionary movement.In 1992September he was killed while retaliating a police attack.n East Godavri agency.

Another comrade worth mentioning was Com.Nageswara Rao who set  a brilliant example of combining open and secret activities of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union. And was ultimately killed in fake encounter on 20th May,1985.He was the Warangal town,A.P.R.S.U.secretary and SSU state vice-president.He showed great resilience resisting the ABVP and police forces.

Coms.Seshiah ,(4th December 1982)who played a prominent role in Nalgonda student movement was stabbed to death by ABVP goondas.Woman martyr Maddila Swarna Latha(26th April 1987) played a major role in the polytechnic agitation as well as hostel struggles. She went to organize the tribals and died while resisting a police attacki n Chinapalli agency in Vishakapatnam.

History of Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union.

On October 12th 1974 the historic birth of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students took place. It set the base for the massive movement lighting the torch of the agrarian revolutionary movement in Andhra Pradesh and literally lit a red flame on the University campuses in Andhra Pradesh. Though the Radical Students Union was formed in 1974,the work towards it’s launching started from 1969 itself-significantly the period of the Naxalbari struggle.

The birth of great leaders like the Late Koteswara Rao or Kishenji took place in the Radical Students Union. Earlier in Warangal,leaders like Kondappali Seetaramiah (founder of the Peoples War group)and K.G.Satyamurthy led students group teams in solidarity with the Naxalbari struggle. Students of S.V.Arts college and Oriental college ,under the direction of Tripurareni Madhusudan Rao,worked in the name of Radicals. Motivated by the literature produced by Digambara kavulu,the students had joined the Srikakulam Struggle.In 1968,the students of Kakatiya medical college forwarded a discussion to print the magazine “Srujana” ,which propogated dialectical materialism.

A journal called “Long March’ was published from Vishakapatnam.In Warangal,students commenced work under the banner of ‘Progressive Democratic Students.In Warangal the students took part in the Steel Plant agitation and separate Telengana movement.Staunch struggles were waged against the RSS-ABVP nexus,in the regional engineering colleges. Demonstrations were also held against price rise.Comrades Chandrashekar,Ravinder and Janaradh played amajor roe in these who later became martyrs.In Turupathi,students first started working under the banner of the ‘radicals.’They helped form the Revolutionary Writers Association .Later they condemned the implication of R.W.A.activists in conspiracy cases. In Regional engineering college,Surapeni Janardhan led struggles ,while in Osmania University George Reddy organized struggles on the university campuses against feudalism and Brahmanical values.

On April 14th,1972 George Reddy was brutally assaulted by ABVP goondas.Subsequentlyt here was a conflict of political Trends amongst student groups..The Radical Students Union was the first student organization to uphold Marxism-Leninsm-Mao Tse Tung Thought in it’s manifesto.and uphold the path of the ‘Naxalbari” revolt.The Radicals held the view that unless the present semi-feudal,semi-colonial Indian Society is abolished totally and New Democracy is built in it’s place, none of the basic problems confronting the students and people can be solved. It asserted the link of the agrarian revolution with the student’s movement and the need for the student movement to be linked with the struggles of the peasantry. In February 1975 Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union held it’s first state conference. Students from all over Telengana Region in Andhra Pradesh,especially from Karimnagar,Warangal,Khammam and Nalgonda Distructs took part in this conference in large numbers. Shortly after the conference Emergency was proclaimed in India by the Indira Gandhi Government.More than 500 Radical students were victims of inhuman torture. Hundreds of them were arrested.

In that period Comrades Janardan,Murali Mohan Anand Rao and Sudhakar in Medak District were martyred in Giraipally Forests.Similarly Comrade Nagaraju was arrested and shot.The Radical Students Union office was ransacked.The radical Students Union developed underground methods of Struggle, They took up struggles to combat the governments filtration policy of detaining school students in the pretext of raising the educational standards. Through that policy the government manipulated the unemployment figures and stated that together with that problem the problem of inadequacy of seats was solved for all the time.

The bankruptcy of the detention system was exposed Pamphlets were also distributed condemning repression on the toiling masses and secretly giving support to people’s struggles ,particularly in villages. Secretly, the revolutionary journal, “The Radical “ was brought out to co-ordinate the student movements in various regions.It wasa tribue to the Radical’s corage and political determination that they withstood the emergency onslaught.Campaigns were carried out against the black laws.In the post emergencuyperiod a major programmes were hel;d in defence of Democratic Rights.The Radical Students supported the Railway strike in 1974 in Kazipet and Secuderbad.

               In 1977 the Janata Party had come to power, which was hailed by quarters as a great victory for Democracy. In the villages of Karimnagar  a major campaign was launched by A.P.R.S.U..Slogans were given off 'Boycott elections and join he Agrarian Revolution.'The peasants of Jagtiyal and Sircilla taluks were greatly awakened. Committees were formed and struggles were started against local landlords. Strikes for wage increase, campaigns for the release of bonded labourers, resistance against different types of caste and gendre discrimination, occurred. In many villages, units of the Rythu Coolie Sangham were formed. Social boycott of the most oppressive landlords began, and soon al the exploited and labouring of the villages responded. Parallel Peoples Courts were set up.

                  In 1977,35 years ago the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union made history by launching the first ever 'Go To Villages' Campaign in India.

What differentiated the A.P.R.SU from other revolutionary organizations was it's stress on the student movement linking with the agrarian revolution.

The following year another campaign was launched following the 2nd state Conference of A.P.R.S.U. This time greatly inspired by the conference, peasant youth returned to villages to organize the peasantry. Landlords were forcibly tried in Peoples Courts. Over 800 acres of land was occupied and lakhs of rupees collected as refunds by the landless peasants. On September 8th amass rally was held consisting of 35000 peasants Terror was created amongst the landlord sections and some fled to the cities. A few days in the aftermath of the rally, the landlord of Chinametupaly opened fire on a peasant demonstration, injuring 20.The peasants retaliated by destroying his crops and razing his nephew's house to the ground.

 As a preparation for the 2nd state conference the boycott of elections campaign was conducted in co-ordinatuion with the task of building Radical Students Union Units in every college.The 2nd state conference was successfully held moblising 3000 delegates. In 1978 it was decided to conduct “Got to Villages Campaign”.Agrarian Revolutionary Politics was propogated in the villages. And a base was created for building a revolutionary Youth Organisation.,forming Youth League Units in every village.

Signature campaigns were carried out on democratic Rigts DemandsIn June 1978 the first Ste Conference of the Andhra Pradesh Radical Youh League was held.In 1979 the 3rd state conference was heldwhere the National and International situation was reviewed. In April,May and June in 1979 the first joint Go To Villages Campaign was held of the Radical Youth League and the Radical Students Union. This time preparatory classes were held in 15 centres in which 500 students and youth participated.

In April, May, June 1979 the first joint campaign was carried out between the Radical Students Union and the Radical Youth league. This time not only the politic sof agrarian revolution was propagated but students were educated on the Soviet backed Vietnamese aggression on Kampuchea. Propoganda taem members were arrested, and revolutionary literature was confiscated. As the students had integrated with the tendu-leaf workers struggling for higher wages in Adilabad district, the police arrested the yoth.The repression was particularly serve in Telengana district.The campaign culminated in the second state conference of Radical youth League in Khammam.

In subsequent campaigns the students courageously bore the onslaught of the police.They relentlessly propogated revolutionary politics. In 1980 they campaigned against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. They also pledged solidarity with the just struggle of the Asamese people for their nationality. In the 1981 campaign they exposed the police massacre on tribal peasants in Indarvelli. In 1982 they pledged for  the release of Comrdae Kondapali Seetharamiah and other political prisoners. A judicial enquiry was demanded for those mowed down in false encounters. The team also mobilsed workers for the first conference of the Singaleri Mine workers .The 1983 campaign was based on exposing the newly formed Telegu Desam Party.It was propagated that he Telegu nationality would only be liberated through proletarian struggle-new democratic revolution of he Proletariat. The 1984 campaign demanded the withdrawal of Central Reserve Force troops from Telanagana district. The goonda attacks of the A.B.V.P were also thwarted More than one lakh signatures wee obtained on this issue.

In all the campaigns the central theme focused on the politics of agrarian revolution.Units of R.YL.and Rytu Coolie SAnghams wee formed.In the 1984 campaign,1100 students and youth split into 150 teams and spread the village of agrarian revolution in 2419 villages.

How Go To Villages campaign is carried out

The students have to participate with a particular understanding. They must analyze the political consciousness of the villagers. A clear political understanding of the purpose and aim of the campaigns is required for the campaign to be a success. Not all villages are ready for revolution.For any revolution the existence of a revolutionary situation is only a first condition Beyond this 3 more conditions are required They are-

1. Revolutionary Consciousness amongst the people

2. An established leadership to lead the revolutionary movement

3. Building of a Peoples Army.

Under no circumstances should the students be bookish, They should show utmost humility and respect the peasants. The campaigns have to be carried out with tremendous patience. The students cannot always expect a rousing welcome. They must win over the hearts of he peasants with the utmost patience.

The major pre-condition is revolutionary consciousness which understands that the basic reason for poverty is that the means of production are not socialized. This consciousness realizes that the New Democratic Revolution is essential as a first step towards reaching the Socialist Society .Revolutionary Consciousnes has to be carried out amongst the oppressed peole.

In 1981 they participated in a major agitation for the release of political prisoners,(Including Koondappali Seetaramiah,the peoples war leader)Meetings were held all over the state.The month of August was observed as Protest week opposing the False encounters.Significantly the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union joined hands with other progressive organization slike the A.P.C.LC, progressive Democratic Student Union,Indian Federation of Trade Unnions,Revolutionary Writers Assoosciation,Jana Natya Mandali Ections .They also collected funds for the families of the tribals massacred in the Indravelli police firing..

In 1983 the 5th conference was held in Turupathi.It was propagated that all round development of the Telegu nationality ws possible only with New democratic revolution.On March 19th at Hyderabad Radical students participated in massive rally organized by civil liberties organizations attended by over 15000 people. On September 19th a state –wide bandh was led against the repression. Black flag demonstrations were held in order to condemn the massacring of the Assam people by the Indira govt.

In 1983 programmes were initiated against private educational institutions,,who collected large amounts of donations.RSU students launched major struggles against menace of donations and capitation fees as well as scarcity of text booksA strike was led from August 15th to 19th.

The Organization won several victories in the College Elections In 1985 in Hyderabad Polytechnic college they were victorious in the college union elections. In 1984 they gave solidarity to the Sikasa Coal miners Struggle. They meticulously aided the strike of the Sikasa Mine workers trying to educate them wit revolutionary politics. They educated and organized the peasantry on partial demands and armed struggle and also formed units of the Radical Youth League. In the manifesto of Radical Students Union it was declared that Mao Tse Tung Thought was the guiding ideology. That is the guiding ideology of a revolutionary political p[arty and not that of a mass organization. Comrade Mao always differentiated between the party and the mass organization..True there were great sacrifices.Political study classes were held but their were strong vanguardist tendencies in the methods of working with the broad masses.

True students were educated and peasants organized but a base was not created to create revolutionary democratic functioning in a broad based mass organization.In the Go To Village Campains they educated the masses byt often the Comrades participated in killings of landlords without the broad participation of the masses.Anarchist activity like burning of railway station or busstops was also used.The Organization took positions and conducted protest on International Issues like the Rusian Invasion of Afghanistan..They called for a world wide anti Soviet United Front.(A wrong tendency which actually applied Deng Xiaopings capitulationist 3 worlds theory)Struggles wer they led for Democratic Rights.


From 1982-84,section 144 was imposed in all campuses and elections were banned for student unions.On August 14th Anti-Repression day was observed.In 1982 a rally was held at Hyderabad on August 18th protesting against Encounter killings.
The A.P.R.S.U.played a major role in staging the first conference of the AllIndia revolutionary Students Federation ,formed in 1985.The Inauguarl conference was staged in Hyderabad on Fenruary 2nd and 3rd in 1985.5,000 delegates were arrested ,including 800 women at Ananthapur and Kazipet railway stations.In the 1985-86 Period The Radical Students Unnion chalked out a new strategy of countering the State Repression .Secretist method of functioning would now be adopted in contrast to open methods ,however all the revolutionary politics would be propogated. .In thatPeriod Comrade Nageshwar Rao ws martyred.He was a major Comrade who was killed in a fake encounter in 1982.The 7th Radical Students Union Conference piad homage to him.
In Hyderabad high school students demonstrated in front of the secretariat on 17th August 1985.In Srikakulam town students demonstrated for the solution of hostel problems in July.1985.In the same period school students of Chagallu in West Godavri protested against the withdrawal of mid-day meal scheme. On 1th September,1985 Ongole Polytechnic students launched a demonstration. On 26th September 1986,Junior college students of Belampally in Adilabad district fought for a degree college.

The staging of the 1987 conference has historical significance if you consider the repressive conditions prevalent. Various district conferences were held in preparation. In the 7th state conference held in February in 1987 the expansionist policies of theCongress govt. were condemned, including the Baliapal Missile bae project and Nageshwar Rao’s death was commemorated. Methods of Struggle were devised to combat the repression .A political resolution was passed in thwarting the attempts of the ruling classes and advancing the movement on the revolutionary path. A report was read out of the role played by the APRSU in  Statewide issues like resvations,Karamchedu massacre,N.GO’S strike and Social WelfareHostel’s students struggle. Political resolutions were also launched against Rajiv Gandh’s national Chauviism, aand war hysteria used to divert the peole fro thir main styruggles.Later in 1987 struggles were launched on issues like scholarships. Police were combated in campuses, The New Education policy was also exposed. An Extensive propaganda campaign was also launched against brutal state repression carried out on 50 Girijan villages in Chintapalli agency in March and June 1987.A propaganda campaign was launched in the villages.

In the conference the deleagates narrated their experience in overcoming the fascist onslaught. The conference displayed the resilience with which the Radical Students withstood the state’s attempt to liquidate the student movement. As part of the undeclared war of the government ont he people .It also described how new forms of struggles were adopted in the changed scenario.
In 1987 Ananthapur high school students agitated for better hostel facilities on 8th July.

. In 1988 and 1999 APRSU launched struggles of issues like BC Scholarshiops,,opposing closing of BC hostels, canceling of loans of peasants, opposing the nuclear plant in Nagarjuna Sagar,opposing the 59th Amendment bill Students converged into Nagarjuna SAgar in August 1988 to oppose the plant, in a joint front with other progressive organizations.

In May 1992 the A.P.R.S.U.was officially banned. What is significant is the way comrades revived the work of the organizations inspite of being banned and still staged state level conferences .From 1992, it heroically held underground conferences.It smajor leaders have been killed.In 1996 on December 5th,6th and 7th the A.P.R.SU.held it’s 10th State Conference.12 resolutions were passed .Earlier that year in East Godavari district the organization conducted a “Go to Villages Campaiggn’ in Anantpur.Inspite of combing operations the teams were successful.Politics of New Democratic Revolution was propogated and people were urged to organize into Rythu Collie Sanghams.Villagers helping the students were arrested.

Integrating the student movement or the student community with the peasantry was an integral revolutionary task. Worldwide revolutions have been made with the participation of students and youth and their integration with the struggles of the working class and the peasantry.

In a third world semi-colonial country like India which has conditions to what China had in a pre-revolutionary period the principal work is in the countryside and it is the peasantry which is the major revolutionary force.

For the student movement to have a truly revolutionary political character it had to identify and unite with the peasantry in the villages.
Organisations following  the APRSU line:
Various organizations later modelled themselves on the lines of the APRSU, as part of the All-India Revolutionary Students Federation, (AIRSF)notably the Revolutionary Students league ,(Bihar)Democratic Students Union,(Bihar) Radical Students Association,(West Bengal),Revolutionary Students Front(West Bengal)Democratic Students Union,(Delhi)Vidhyarti Praghati Sanghatna,(Maharashtra)Tamil Nadu Radical students Union etc,Praghtipara Vidhyarti Kendra(Karnataka),Chatra Morcha(Haryana)They also launched Go-to Village campaigns and also led struggles on the campus. In Bihar the Democratic Students Union was active for a decade .

The Revolutionary Students League (R.S.L. was the first student organization following the APRSU line in Bihar.It was formed in 1987. The Revolutionary Students League was the first ever Revolutionary Student organisation to carry out a ‘Go to Villages campaign’ in Bihar in 1989.In that campaign they upheld the Chinese Revolution in commemorating the 40th anniversary year. A Village campaign was also held in1993 protesting against the Death Sentence on M.C.C.comrades in the Dalechauk Baghera Uprising in Aurangabad and against the demolition of the Babri Masjid in December 1992,where a cycle rally was also held. It alos conducted state –level workshops in 1998 and 1999 with the ideology of  Marxism-Leninism was explained and it’s relationship with the student movement. It also did a strong solidarity campaign on the occasion of 30 years of Naxalbari in May,1997.The 1st workshop was held in Dhanbad,at Palani high school.Students role in Naxalbari,polemical debates in the student movement and the birth and ries of student movement in Bihar was discussed.In the 2nd  workshop it dealt with the importance of the student movement during 1960’s to 1970 and the lessons to be learnt, the practical problem of the student movement in Bihar and the role of students in agrarian revolution. A torchlight procession was organized in Gandhi maidan,culminating at Patna junction.In 1994 Democratic Students Union.(The D.S.U.) was formed.This had its roots in the Bharat Naujavan Sabha formed in 1988.TheBharat Naujavan Sabha earlier fought for the students and youth collectively.

For the first time a separate organizational structure was built for students. Several former Bharat Naujavan Sabha activists took up the responsibility of building D.S.U. The strategy of the Democratic Students Union(Bihar) was to organise students on their partial demands as well as connect their problems to the chief political issues of the day. The student movement had to be oriented towards the interests of the agrarian revolution. For achieving the task the Democratic Students Union took up the responsibility of organizing 
�Go to Village Campaigns�. Democratic Students Union also planned to fight against imperialism. as well as democratic

In the colleges the D.S.U fought against malpractices in Arts colleges as well as engineering colleges. In these institutions unqualified teachers and principals were appointed. Funds were misappropriated by managements. In the Patna Arts College the Principal even stole paintings.D.S.U organised agitations agains this.D.S.U D.S.U declared a lockout in the college not allowing principals and teachers to enter the college.Waris Hadi was made principal in 1994 as he had political links with the governor of Bihar.He sold paintings and illegally appointed several people irrespective of merit. including a lecturer who faced a murder charge. After a protracted student struggle the principal was removed. The president of the then students union was rusticated from the university due to complete collapse of administrative structure in the college. The college was not de-affiliated from the

All India technical Services board which badly affected students.

The D.S.U organised agitations against indifference and politicking in Patna University.70students sat on a dharna for 5 daysand a poster exhibition was organised.Programmes were taken jointly with A.I.S.F,the S.F.I and the A.I.D.S.O. fighting for student
�s admissions.Dharnas were held against malpractices and corruption. Agitations were also launched against fee hikes. Such examples are in Daltonganj where the students had to clash with the C.P.R.F personnel.

In Patna engineering college the students launched a 6 day hunger strike demanding the opening of a college which had been opened earlier.D.S.U gave soli darity to this issue and burnt an effigy of the education minister.

In the Jharkand areas D.S.U led struggles for tribals in schools to be taught in their native languages.In these areas D.S.U launched agitations for tribal students who were denied the right to learn in their native languages. The D.S.U also fought for democratic rights issues.Very often D.S.U organise cycle rallies as a form of protest.The most significant agitations were against police firings in Madhubani and Darsinghsarai areas of Bihar.Here D.S.U joined hands with even the revisionist student organisations as well as the Chatra Sangharsh Yuva Vahini.This took place in 1995.

The D.S.U also protested against the death sentence imposed
on the 13 M.CC activists in 1992.Here the D.S.U joined hands with the Revolutionary Students League and the Progresive Students and Youth front.(The 2 other revolutionary student organisations) After the Laxmanpur-Bathe massacre carried out by the Ranbir Sena the D.S.U Along with the Bharat Naujavan Sangh organised protests throughout the state.In Daltonganj,Jehanabad,Gaya,Khagaria torchlight processions were launched.In conditions of severe repression protests were launched.D.S.U joined
several revolutionary organizations this issue.

In 1997 D.S.U protested against the killing of 6 Party Unity activists. In Patna they burned the effigy of the chief minister.D.S.U also held commemoration programmes of the Arwal massacre that took place in 1986.In 1996 a protest meeting was clamped upon by the police and revolutionary activists were arrested. Afer the killing of Comrade Chandrashekar ,a student of J.N.U IN Delhi D.S.U launched protest programmes along with other organisations.In Jehanabad with A.I.D.S.O protests were organised in the form of torchlight processions.

In 1999,D.S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha took out a cycle rally from Daltangaunj to Patna protesting against the Shankar bigha massacre. Earlier in Daltonganj an effigy of the chief minister was burnt. In March 2000 D.SU led a protest with other revolutionary organisations protesting the murder of 11 revolutionaries in Kachnewan.An effigy of the Bihar administration was burnt at Patna junction.D.S.U.also participated in the march to Kachnewan as well as on a protest demonstration on April 6th.

From 1995 the D.S.U Organised
�Go to Village Campaigns.� These have been conducted on district as well as state levels. Their were 3 types of campaigns launched. The first was on specific political issues. The second type was a general political campaign and the third type was launching cultural programmes.The purpose of these programmes was to integrate the students and youth with the peasantry. In the first campaign in Gumrah district 6 D.S.U activists were arrested campaigning for Beedi Patta workers.The activists were organising the Beedi Patta workers against the merciless contractors who did not pay them their daily wages.

The next state-wide campaign took place in 1997 in Khagaria district which is a flood prone region.Here the D.SU formed flood relief distribution commitees and explained the peasants the political reasons for which the state could not give common people protection.The flood relief programmes of the government were found to be totally inadequate and the government gave a ready excuse that Nepal has let off water.Infact the real reason was that the landlords did not allow the construction of dams at sites which would have been appropriate because those sites were falling within their lands.Infact the dam mechanism in the state was create only with the purpose of preventing waterlogging and not for flood control. In addition the boatmen were not paid their wages for the relief work.

At the end of the campaign the team held public meetings and dharma demanding an end to corruption and compensation for boatmen .

In 1998 the D,S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha visited areas in Buxar ,Palamau Santhal Paraganas and Khagaria districts.In Buxar sustained wall-writing was carried out by activists protesting against the landlords not paying minumum wages to agricultural workers.They were paid wages between Rs.15 to 30.Landlords here possessed 5,000 acres of land and religious Maths owned hundreds of acres.districts.In Santhal Parganas the D.S.U fought for the implementation of a separate Jharkhand State.

In Palamau, a centre of the revolutionary peasant movement the D.S.U fought against the construction of a dam which submerged 14 villages.20 people had been killed in the flood the previous year and no compensation was awarded.In Khagaria activists again propagated the real reasons for adequate protection being given to people during floods. The wrong policies of the government were explained. This time 
�Bandh Sangharsh commitees were formed in villages which held several protest meetings againt corruption.

The last state-wide campaign took place in the Bhagalpur and Bankadistricts.Here the activists gave solidarity to peasant
�s struggles and propagated the politics of Naxalbari and agrarian revolution..

In May 2000 the D.S.U held its first state conference in Patna..Students came from all over the state the maximum number coming from Palamau and Jehanabad and Bhagalpur districts in the former 2 districts students faced severe repression on the way to the conference. In addition students came from Buxar,Gaya,Khagariadistricts etc.Before the State conference district conferences were held in Bhagalpur.Patna town and Palamau districts.Here district commitees were formed and the district activities were reviewed.

At the State conference Comrade Amitabh was elected the President and Vijay ,the secretay.A 6 member committee consisting of Amitabh,Sachin,Sumit,Pankaj,Vijay and Jaiprakash were elected. Resolutions were passed opposing privatization and communalization of education, opposing the repression on revolutionary movements and supporting the rights of nationalities to self-determination. 2 State-wide workshops were also carried out by the Democratic Students Union. The first one was held in 1999 to discuss organizational functioning, the building of unitspolititicisation methods and finance.

Here principally the appropriate forms of struggle were discussed. It was decided that educational institutions were neglected and a regular wall magazine should be brought out in addition to cultural programmes.It was also noted that regular commitees were not formed in several places In the 2nd workshop in February 2000 study classes were held on the history of the Communist movement in India, the State of Education, and dialectical materialism. Delegates attended from Gaya.Palamau ,Bhagalpur and Patna.

One of the most significant things that occurred was the merger of the Progressive Students and Youth Front with the D.S.U.The former organisation had a strong mass base in Bhagalpur district leading powerful agitations against fee-hikes and corruption in Bhagalpur University. This organisation also held a massive programme for Tilka Majhi
�s birthday to be observed in Bhagalpur university.

Several times the organisation organised gheraoes against the vice-chancellor for hostel demands. After merging into D.S.U the organisation launched a massive demonstration against the administration in Bhagalpur university house -
�arresting corrupt officials. The emergence of the Democratic Students Union has played a significant role in the revolutionary movement in Bihar. Innumerable sacrifices have been made by activists.

The martyrdom of comrades Anil Ojha and Chanchal were particularly significant.Anil Ojha was killed as a result of police torture after organising a student agitation against malpractices of the principal in Patna Arts College.Chanchal played a great role in organising D.S.U units in Jehanabad districts as well as building the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.Eventually he was killed by his own relatives.

From May 6th to June  7th in 1995 the Revolutionary Students Federation (West Bengal)participated in a month long campaign in Midnapur district covering 60 vilages.Political classes were carried out explaining the politics of the New Democratic Revolution.G.A TT agreement and Jharkhand Movement.3000 pamphlets were distributed I villages.There were 3 objectives I launching the campaign. Firstly to understand he lives of the rural population of Wst Bengal. Secondly, to merge with the lives of the people and thirdly to propagate the agrarian revolutionary politics.T he teams never bought food and always ate with the masses. Local landlords repelled he team and stated laucnching  campaign against the R.S F team. They even brought the police and implicated false charges on the team .However the team had won the hearts of he villagers who bravely thwarted off any attempts of reactionary elements  to sabotage their campaign. In the night cultural programmes were launched.

               The tae had found ouit that socio-economic condtions had not improved in theWe t Bengal C.P.M regime .Women collected Sal tree leaves from the jungle which they converted into plates and sold at aprice of Rs.15-22.,per 1000 pieces. In turn the trader sold them at aprice of Rs 250-300 per 1000 in Calcutta. They were also denied the minimum wage of Rs 40 and were paid Rs 15 for producing Rs5kg.of paddy.T he tribal people were also illiterate.

               Campaigns were also carried out exposing the parliamentary system. Campaigns were launched in Kerala in Palakkad,C alicut, Kannur and Ernakulam districts. Mass postering and distribution of pamphlets was done. In Delhi, campaigns were launched in Industrial areas where a skit named 'Sansad Suabarda Hai' was perfprmerd.(Parliament is a pigsty)It was jointly carried out by the Delhi Democratic Students Union and the Delhi Mazdoor Front.I Tamil Nadu 5 districts were coverede,namely madras,Madurai,Salem,Dharmapuri and
 Vellore.Efforts of Goondas and aother reactionary elements to thwart the campaign were successfully repelled.In West Bengal Revolutionary Students Asssociation  organized go to village campaigns in Maldah district in 1998.Village committees were formed after acmapign was led propogating the membership of the Krishak Sangram Samiti and to mobilize for the conference on 25th and 26th of October.It alos led protest campaigns protesting against the Laxamanpur Bathe massacre of Dalit peasants in Bihar in Jadavpur and Seldeah on the 17th to 22nd December.Agitations were also organized against the killing of peasant leader Jiten Mondal by the CPM goons.In 1997 Revolutionary Students Front conducted a Go to Village Campaign in  May focusing on the relevance of the Naxalbari Movement and appealing to the peasants to join the rally on May 23rd commemorating Naxalbari..In 1998 they organized acampaign in South 24 Parganas distyrict where they propogated on the imperialist loot of agriculture and the role of WTO.They fought for the development of  ahealth centre.
In Maharashtra the Vidhyarti Praghati Sanghatana  also carried out campaigns in villages, A village campaign team was jailed in Chandrapur in 1984 which was building units of the peasant organization-The Krantikari Kashtakari Sanghatana. was established.For many successive years campaigns were launched like in Nasik district in 1995 where the politics of agrarian revolution was propagated.
In Haryana the Jagrut Chatra Morcha held its first conference in 18th and 19th November in 1997.It carried out a ‘Go to villages campaign in Kurukshetra,Yamunagar and Bilaspur.They investigated the condition sprevalent and gave emphasis on the Dalit bastis.A study was made of the housing conditionsand the state of the landless families.
Notable martyrs from Bihar in the student movement were Com Arjun ,Chanchal and Anil Ojha,who relentlessly fought aginst the oppression of the ruling classes.

In May 1995 Comrade Chanchal was martyred,.His career started 20 years ago when he came into contact with he Bharat Naujavan Sabha in 1988. Who was the leader of the Democratic Students Union. Comrade Chanchal was martyred in 1995.This comrade's real name was Shivrat Kumar.Chanchal played a major role in the building of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha in Jehanabad district valiantly resisting both state and landlord terror.He organised student and youth struggles against feehike, against doctors not attending work in hospitals and against and against malpractices and corruption of jail authorities. He also helped build the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.During the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition in December 1992 by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad Comrade Chanchal organised statewide protest protesting the communal terror.He organised and adressed cycle and torch rallies in Jehanabad and Palamau districts. It was ironical that Chanchal was killed by his own relatives! This comrade's death planted the seeds for new revolutionary youth to bloom.

In February 12th 1998 Anil Ojha was martyred.(10th death anniversary year) His death was the result of police torture and negligence of hospital authorities. nil was born in Chapra district and had also been a cultural activist.Anil had led student struggles in Patna University against the Principal Waaris Haadi,who not only extorted funds but supported criminals.(Bihar's educational administration is controlled by criminal gangs)Anil had earlier organised go-to-village campaigns in Khagaria district where he helped build flood-relief struggle commitees to fight against the government's criminal neglect of the masses during floods. nil had earlier bravely resisted police torture in a Go to Village campaign in 1995 in Palamau district. His death was a severe blow to the revolutionary movement.

Com.Arjun was the treasurer of RSL and was made an executive committee member of the All India Revolutionary Students Federation.He served the movement as a full time revolutionary activist.He was killed on July 10t 1995,after being kidnapped by criminal Sukar Paswan.

It is also worth paying homage to Comrade  Manoj who would be fifty this year, being born in 1962.Manoj was an active organizer in the RSL and succumbed to police bullets in stage –made encounter in Mahadev Bigha village of Jehanbad district.Com.Manoj had given a new direction to the student movement and was first active in the Communist Youth League.

I recommend readers to purchase booklet “A Glorious Saga of A.P.R.S.U,which I purchased at the first conference of the Revolutionary Democratic Front at Hyderabad,and used to produce this work.

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