ROBERT PAXTON ON FASCISM
• a sense of overwhelming crisis beyond the reach of any traditional
• the primacy of the group, toward which one has duties superior
to every right, whether individual or universal, and the subordination
of the individual to it;
• the belief that one’s group is a victim, a sentiment that justifies
any action, without legal or moral limits, against its enemies,
both internal and external;
• dread of the group’s decline under the corrosive effects of individualistic liberalism, class conflict, and alien influences;
• the need for closer integration of a purer community, by consent
if possible, or by exclusionary violence if necessary;
• the need for authority by natural chiefs (always male), culminating
in a national chieftain who alone is capable of incarnating
the group’s historical destiny;
• the superiority of the leader’s instincts over abstract and universal
• the beauty of violence and the efficacy of will, when they are
devoted to the group’s success;
• the right of the chosen people to dominate others without
restraint from any kind of human or divine law, right being
decided by the sole criterion of the group’s prowess within a
FREE BOOK OF ROBERT PAXTON - ANATOMY OF FASCISM
Democracy and Class Struggle is studying what can be described as a first stage of Fascism from India to Turkey to France and USA.
We are interested in the universals in Fascism but realise than much is specific to India and Turkey and France and USA.
Contrasting the views on Religious Hindu Fascism with the European and American emerging Fascism allows us to identify universals but should not make us overlook Fascism's specificity at the beginning of the 21st Century.