Sunday, March 26, 2017

Professor Filip Kovacevic discusses the articles from four Russian newspapers: Izvestia, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, Kommersant, and Pravda. He discusses the unique deep sea water operation by the Russian navy in the Mediterranean, the Russian military involvement with Armenia and Azerbaijan, the NATO destabilization plans for the Black Sea and beyond, the top-level negotiations between the Russian and Japanese government officials, and the wide-spread social protests organized by the Russian Communist party across the entire country.



Democracy and Class Struggle finds ourselves in more agreement with Professor Filip Kovacevic in his current review of the Russian Newspapers.

Filip Kovacevic sees the death of the possibilities of detente with Russia on the basis of current NATO actions - something we pointed out when Russia was gripped with Trump Euphoria as anyone who looked at practical on the ground military actions of US and NATO could not avoid that conclusion.

The Russian National Bourgeoisie historically have never been very good at protecting Russian national interests and the Russian Security Military Apparatus  will find itself clashing more with Russian Oligarchic Profit Patriots.

We expect to see purge of free market loving unpatriotic elements in the Russian State in the coming months as a necessity - bye bye Medvedev.

The rebuilding of a revolutionary Communist Party in Russia in 2017 is the responsibility of the Russian People as communists are the real patriots and social justice warriors in Russia but western media ignores their influential struggle but prefers to concentrate on western backed colour revolutionary rightists like Navalny.








Saturday, March 25, 2017

India: The Punjab remembers the immortal contribution of Shaheed Bhagat Singh by Harsh Thakor





SALUTE THE CONFERENCE AND RALLY OF PUNJAB STUDENTS UNION AND NAUJWAN BHARAT SABHA IN FEROZEPUR WHICH CARRIED ON THE LEGACY OF THE IMMORTALS MARTYRS BHAGAT SINGH,SUKHDEV AND RAJGURU.

THE PARTICIPANTS ,INCLUDING MANY WOMEN THRONGED TO THE ERA REMINISCENT OF THOUSANDS OF SMALL STREAMS CONVERGING INTO AN OCEAN.

THE VENUE APPEARED AS THOUGH ILLUMINATED WITH THE INEXTINGUISHABLE FLAME OF SHAHEED BHAGAT SINGH. 

SPEAKERS CONDEMNED THE PRESENT DAY RULERS WHIO BETRAYED THE PATH OF THE GREAT MARTYRS IN SPITE OF USING THEIR NAME AND HIGHLIGHTED THE POLITICAL PATH AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES OF THE PRESENT RULERS WHICH RAN AT EXACTLY OPPOSITE POLES TO WHAT BHAGAT SINGH PROPAGATED.THE HEARTS OF THE PARTICIPANTS LOOKED FILLED WITH RAGE AGAINST THE FASCIST ECONOMIC POLICIES OF THE POLITICAL; PARTIES WHO DIVERTED THE BURNING ISSUES OF THE MASSES.

I WAS PRESENT AND REALLY IMPRESSED WITH SUCH A POSITIVE EFFORT OF THE STUDENT COMRADES ,PARTICULARLY THE GIRLS.THIS VERY DETERMINATION AND SPIRIT NEEDS TO BE REVIVED ALL OVER THE COUNTRY WHEN COMMUNAL FASCISM HAS BECOME A THORN IN THE FLESH FOR ALL DEMOCRATIC VOICES. 





Around 5000  people participated in conference and rally to commemorate Bhagat Singh and his fellow comrades Sukhdev and Rajguru.

Speakers vociferously condemned the actions of the state on imprisoning professor Saibaba and 5 others with life sentence  as well as awarding the same  to the Maruti workers.

Raminder Singh,president of NBS,Rajinder Singh,general secretary of PSU,Rakesh Kumar,researcher on Bhagat Singh,,Professor Jagmohan,nephew of Bhagat Singh were some of the important speakers.

The main theme was based on the building of the memorial for the great martyr to which the state had been absolutely apathetic. Over 5000 students and youth participated including around 800 girls.1000 came from Sangrur,100 from Muktsar,1000 from Faridkot,around 150 from Bathinda ,Patiala and Amritsar..I was particularly impressed with the participation of girl students,which was significant.

After the public meeting a rally was held for about one hour to the market are of the town..I was privilaged to be present and witness the ressureection not only of the spirit of Shaheed Bhgat Singh but also echoes of the great student and youth movement led by the same organizations in the 1970s.Such an assembly has great significance to the revolutionary democratic movement as a whole.

When communal hindu fascism is posing a threat similar to what the Nazi regime created in Germany it is vital that Bhagat Singh's ideology or message reaches every walk of life.

Unlike the Gandhian Congress Bhagat Singh stood for revolutionary anti-feudal and anti-imperialist resistance. Gandhian approach would be class collaborationist towards Hindu Saffron Fascism of the RSS variety.

Ferozepur, An important programme of democratic students Organization was held simulntaneously in Hussainwala ,the birthplace of the great martyr.March 23

Thousands of Punjab Students’ Union (PSU) activists took out a march here today to urge the state government to convert the double-storeyed building in Turi Bazaar locality, which was a hideout of Shaheed Bhagat Singh’s Krantikari Party, into a museum-cum-library.

Rajinder Singh, president, PSU, said, “We have already organised more than 200 meetings across the state to make people aware of this building’s importance.”

Kranti Kumar Katiyar, whose father Dr Gaya Prasad used to run a pharmacy at this place, said the government had granted this building the status of a protected monument after a long struggle, but nothing had been done to develop it.

Earlier, HC Arora, a Chandigarh-based advocate, had filed a plea in the High Court, seeking heritage status for this building. Subsequently, the Department of Cultural Affairs, Heritage and Museums had issued a notification in December 2014 under the Punjab Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1964.

However, no funds were allocated for the restoration and preservation of the building, following which Arora moved the court again.

Rakesh Kumar, who has authored books on the monument, said, “Converting the building into a museum-cum-library will be our true salute to the martyrs.”

Meticuluos preparation efforts were made,particulary in Sangrur,Faridkot and Muktsar with a series of rallies and cultural programmes staged.Also Candle (Mashal) March at village Ramgarah District Barnala, Punjab in the memory of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev by Krantikari Mazdoor Union and Revolutionary people's Front. and Revolutionary people's Front paid homage to 23rd March Martyrs at Hussainiwala. People in thousands attended the program.regards harsh thakor

Culture Wars on Social Media - David Pakman and Kyle of Secular Talk discuss




Democracy and Class Struggle has now reached 2 million viewers so we are little league social media player - in David Pakman and Kyle terms we would be denounced as Social Justice Warriors.

Clarifying what is Left and Right is key to social progress as the right wallows in conflating right and left and social democratic liberals like Pakman and Kyle contribute to that confusion rather than clarity.

Social ownership and State ownership are routinely conflated - the market is usually not understood and the great trick of market socialism is foisted on the progressive movement and its antithesis the plan is just described as bureaucracy and not the working class democracy that it would be under real socialism where democracy is not purely political but social and economic.

The discussion between Pakman and Kyle although within limits of social liberalism rather than socialism is a useful starting point to look at challenges and opportunities of social media in early 21st century.











Open Letter from Fighters from British Isles Against the Islamic State




We are some of an increasing number of British nationals fighting in Syria and Iraq as volunteers with local forces against the Islamic State.

We wish first and foremost to express our sorrow and anger at the recent terrorist attack in Westminster, London, and to convey our sincerest and most heartfelt condolences to the victims and their families.

We know only too well what is to lose friends, to treat those horrendously wounded, to pull the dead and dying from the rubble.

We also wish to express sympathy and solidarity with the many ordinary Muslims going to work and school today feeling that they are under special scrutiny, and fearful of what this might mean for them.

We share their fear, and we urge anyone who might be tempted to take against ordinary Muslim people to think again.

If you associate them with the Islamic State, you are giving such groups exactly what they want: a greater and more violent gap between the Muslim world and ours.

The familiar sounds of hate and bigotry are sounding again – on social media, and in the more guarded mainstream press – where the intent is nonetheless clear. Hate crimes will spike again. There are calls to demolish mosques.

The fact that local Muslims raised thousands for victim support, in the immediate aftermath of the attack, is easily drowned out by the bandwagon.

The EDL have called a snap demonstration, eager to make hay from the suffering of innocent people.

For all the sound and fury, we don’t remember seeing anyone from Britain First, EDL, UKIP, or their like, by our side in battle. Which is a good thing, because we wouldn’t have tolerated them.


Our ranks are made up of Kurds, Arabs, Yezidis, Brits, Yanks, Canadians, Aussies, Asians, Europeans – Muslims, Christians, Alevis, atheists – too many faiths and races to list. A multi-ethnic, multi-faith entity, standing united against hate and extremism. The majority are, in fact, Muslims, and not only are we proud to stand shoulder-to-shoulder with them – the truth is, we can’t do this without them.

The only way to defeat the Islamic State, and groups like it, is with ordinary, moderate Muslims on side. The only way to defeat hate and extremism is to not give in to it.

Don’t stand with Britain First, the EDL, UKIP or those who talk and think like them. Stand with us.

Signed,

British fighters of the YPG

Joe Akerman

Aiden Aslin

Mark Ayres

Botan England

Michael Enright

Macer Gifford

John Harding

Jac Holmes

Steve Kerr

Jim Matthews

Tom Mawdsley

Ozkan Ozdil

Shaun Pinner

Joe Robinson

Josh Walker





SOURCE: 

http://kurdishquestion.com/article/3879-british-ypg-fighters-publish-open-letter-on-london-attacks

Thursday, March 23, 2017

USA: Time Interview - I am President and you are not ? But for how long ?



Why he will go :

Buyers Remorse - Putin will throw him under a bus

Multiple violations of Presidential emoluments clause

European Intelligence Agencies will release their info on Trump

FBI will find a smoking gun

The Way he will go 

He will resign or !

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Trump is Dangerous for Russia by Professor Aleksandr Buzgalin of Moscow State University



The US and Russian right share a similar ideology, but it's one that sees each other as an excuse for military expansion and harmful internal economic policy, says professor Aleksandr Buzgalin

Democracy and Class Struggle agrees with Aleksandr Buzgalin political position on Russia and US relations  - we were aware of others of a similar position to Buzgalin in Russia - but they had no influence in the Russian Presidential Administration ( Although we heard a liberal like PM Medvedev warned against getting to involved in US election )  - the consequences of not stopping some of the Russian adventures into the US election will eliminate any detente in the near future between US and Russia and pushes it into a very distant future. Russia rarely acts stupidly - but this is one of those rare occasions.

Trump is an obscenity in politics and one of the consequences of his Presidency however short it will be will be blow up the fake patriots in USA around Drudge and Alex Jones and Breitbart as his incompetent Presidency internally collapses.

Article 50 and the National and Social Liberation of the Nations of the British Isles by Nickglais

                                                  Atlantic Europe in 2050


Notice under article 50 will been given by the British State from withdrawal from the European Union on 29th March 2017.

Therefore this issue will dominate " British" Politics and the politics of "National Liberation" for coming years in these islands.

Therefore clarity is required on this issue from the so called nationalist parties in Scotland Ireland and Wales and also from Republican Socialists in these nations.

A clarity that will achieve the strategic objective of independence in the sovereign use of that term.

The Nationalist Parties in Scotland Ireland and Wales are united in wanting to "remain" or rejoin the European Union.

Despite the economic mercantilist ( beggar my nieghbour) policies  pursued by Germany the economic engine of the European Union - despite the national humiliation of Greece and Ireland - which should deeply offend any nationalist-  the so called nationalist parties are committed to a post Brexit European Union.

The supra national cosmopolitan Europe of the elites utilizes the European Central Bank  for quantative easing for corporations not the people's of Europe, The European Court of Justice through a series of decisions in the early 21st century have prioritised the rights of the market over the rights of labour  - this is where our so called nationalists want to take us post British State Brexit - why ?

What manner of nationalists are these people - history gives us a firm answer and it comes from James Connolly, John Maclean and Lenin they are  bourgeois nationalists those nationalists that serve the  capitalist elite in Edinburgh, Dublin or Cardiff while pretending to serve the people as a whole - their self deception is rampant that they think they are the people.

It has been apparent for over a 100 years that bourgeois nationalists are not the true patriots in the era of Imperialism - that lies with the working class - yes the proletariat.

Raising the working class  to the leading class in the nation is the Republican Socialist task in Scotland Wales and Ireland and the completion of the national democratic revolutions aborted by the British State in the early 20th century can now finally be realised.

National and social liberation will be that lethal combination that will see's off that 18th century construct and invented tradition of Brittannia.

However before the fall of the British State - Brittannia has one last hope it is the self deception of the bourgeois nationalists of Scotland Ireland and Wales.

Because the strategic notion of sovereign independence is at odds with the supra nationalism of the European Union which did not go unnoticed by many millions throughout the British Isles in the EU Referendum in Wales,Scotland and Ireland.

The Bourgeois Nationalists by employing the tactic of Pro EU membership eats away at their very strategic aim of sovereign Independence and the British State will utilize that contradiction to maximum effect in the years ahead.

This leads us as Republican Socialists to ask the question do they really want  genuine independence or has their closet British Unionism ( Love of Queen, Members in the House of Lords even some bourgeois republican elements )  been transformed into European Unionism the wet dream of Sir Oswald Moseley post 1945.

While as Republican Socialists we stand for and deeply believe in internationalism and international organisations that give mutual respect to all nations and peoples we abhor supra (above) nationalism where an undemocratic capitalist bureaucratic elite can control our finances and law.

We look forward to forming  new international organisations of peoples of Wales and Ireland and Scotland in the coming years based on mutual respect and understanding of the real tasks of national and social liberation ahead.

We reject the great deception of the bourgeois nationalists in Scotland, Wales Ireland on the basis of a class analysis of their politics not just in theory but political practice.

We also reject those that fail to understand the class nature of politics and would force a non class patriots verses globalism agenda on the national movements which would open the door to the most ferocious national fascism.

We live in the era of the twilight of the British State formation and the French State formation and the Spanish State formation and the disintegration of the European Union and liberation of  previously nationally oppressed nations - that process will take  universal as well as highly specific forms which will better understand over time.

The fierce defense of the artificial construct the  French State against the rights of other nations in France is exemplified by Marine Le Pen in her non class rhetoric of patriots verses globalism that echo the declassed Trumpen proletariat.

The process began by the British State on 29th March 2017 will reshape not just not the nations of the British Isles in Northern Europe - but hasten the re configuration of Europe over the next hundred years.

It is a call for Republican Socialist action to avoid the great national deceptions arising on the Left from social democratic parties like Sinn Fein, SNP and Plaid Cymru but also from the Fascist right particularly in France.

The need for Socialist Republicanism has never been greater in the last 100 years to shine the path to independence and socialism in the 21st Century

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Certain Features in the Historical Development of Marxism by V.I Lenin (1910)



Democracy and Class Struggle is revisiting Lenin this centenary of the 1917 Russian Revolution to better understand his dialectical materialism as applied to everyday life.

The revision of Marxism to some sub branch of Liberalism with "hegemony" and " hierarchy" is continued into 21st century usually accompanied by a complete bastardization of Gramsci whose revolutionary essence has been gutted.

The Marxism of the revisionists of all hues shows as Lenin said 


"They had learnt by rote certain “slogans”, certain answers to tactical questions, without having understood the Marxist criteria for these   answers. 

The “revaluation of all values” in the various spheres of social life led to a “revision” of the most abstract and general philosophical fundamentals of Marxism. 

The influence of bourgeois philosophy in its diverse idealist shades found expression in the Machist epidemic that broke out among the Marxists. 

The repetition of “slogans” learnt by rote but not understood and not thought out led to the widespread prevalence of empty phrase-mongering. 

The practical expression of this were such absolutely un-Marxist, petty-bourgeois trends as frank or shamefaced “otzovism”, or the recognition of otzovism as a “legal shade” of Marxism.

The Reconstruction of Revolutionary Marxism in 21st Century is the contemporary task of Marxist Leninist Maoists.



Our doctrine—said Engels, referring to himself and his famous friend—is not a dogma, but a guide to action. This classical statement stresses with remarkable force and expressiveness that aspect of Marxism which is very often lost sight of. And by losing sight of it, we turn Marxism into something one-sided, distorted and lifeless; we deprive it of its life blood; we undermine its basic theoretical foundations—dialectics, the doctrine of historical development, all-embracing and full of contradictions; we undermine its connection with the definite practical tasks of the epoch, which may change with every new turn of history.

Indeed, in our time, among those interested in the fate of Marxism in Russia, we very frequently meet with people who lose sight of just this aspect of Marxism. Yet, it must be clear to everybody that in recent years Russia has under gone changes so abrupt as to alter the situation with unusual rapidity and unusual force—the social and political situation, which in a most direct and immediate manner determines the conditions for action, and, hence, its aims.

I am not referring, of course, to general and fundamental aims, which do not change with turns of history if the fundamental relation between classes remains unchanged. It is perfectly obvious that this general trend of economic (and not only economic) evolution in Russia, like the fundamental relation between the various classes of Russian society, has not changed during, say, the last six years.

But the aims of immediate and direct action changed very sharply during this period, just as the actual social   and political situation changed, and consequently, since Marxism is a living doctrine, various aspects of it were bound to become prominent.

In order to make this idea clear, let us cast a glance at the change in the actual social and political situation over the past six years. We immediately differentiate two three year periods: one ending roughly with the summer of 1907, and the other with the summer of 1910.

The first three-year period, regarded from the purely theoretical standpoint, is distinguished by rapid changes in the fundamental features of the state system in Russia; the course of these changes, moreover, was very uneven and the oscillations in both directions were of considerable amplitude.

The social and economic basis of these changes in the “superstructure” was the action of all classes of Russian society in the most diverse fields (activity inside and outside the Duma, the press, unions, meetings, and so forth), action so open and impressive and on a mass scale such as is rarely to be observed in history.

The second three-year period, on the contrary, is distinguished—we repeat that we confine ourselves to the purely theoretical “sociological” standpoint—by an evolution so slow that it almost amounted to stagnation. There were no changes of any importance to be observed in the state system. There were hardly any open and diversified actions by the classes in the majority of the “arenas” in which these actions had developed in the preceding period.

The similarity between the two periods is that Russia underwent capitalist evolution in both of them. The contradiction between this economic evolution and the existence of a number of feudal and medieval institutions still remained and was not stifled, but rather aggravated, by the fact that certain institutions assumed a partially bourgeois character.

The difference between the two periods is that in the first the question of exactly what form the above-mentioned rapid and uneven changes would take was the dominant, history-making issue. The content of these changes was bound to be bourgeois owing to the capitalist character of Russia’s evolution; but there are different kinds of bourgeoisie.

The middle and big bourgeoisie, which professes a more or less moderate liberalism, was, owing to its very class position, afraid of abrupt changes and strove for the retention of large remnants of the old institutions both in the agrarian system and in the political “superstructure”.

The rural petty bourgeoisie, interwoven as it is with the peasants who live “solely by the labour of their hands”, was bound to strive for bourgeois reforms of a different kind, reforms that would leave far less room for medieval survivals. The wage-workers, inasmuch as they consciously realised what was going on around them, were bound to work out for them selves a definite attitude towards this clash of two distinct tendencies.

Both tendencies remained within the frame work of the bourgeois system, determining entirely different forms of that system, entirely different rates of its development, different degrees of its progressive influence.

Thus, the first period necessarily brought to the fore—and not by chance—those problems of Marxism that are usually referred to as problems of tactics.

Nothing is more erroneous than the opinion that the disputes and differences over these questions were disputes among “intellectuals”, “a struggle for influence over the immature proletariat”, an expression of the “adaptation of the intelligentsia to the proletariat”, as Vekhi followers of various hues think. On the contrary, it was precisely because this class had reached maturity that it could not remain indifferent to the clash of the two different tendencies in Russia’s bourgeois development, and the ideologists of this class could not avoid providing theoretical formulations corresponding (directly or indirectly, in direct or reverse reflection) to these different tendencies.

In the second period the clash between the different tendencies of bourgeois development in Russia was not on the order of the day, because both these tendencies had been crushed by the “diehards”, forced back, driven inwards and, for the time being, stifled.

The medieval diehards[2] not only occupied the foreground but also inspired the broadest sections of bourgeois society with the sentiments propagated by Vekhi, with a spirit of dejection and recantation. It was not the collision between two methods of re forming the old order that appeared on the surface, but a loss of faith in reforms of any kind, a spirit of “meekness”   and “repentance”, an enthusiasm for anti-social doctrines, a vogue of mysticism, and so on.

This astonishingly abrupt change was neither accidental nor the result of “external” pressure alone. The preceding period had so profoundly stirred up sections of the population who for generations and centuries had stood aloof from, and had been strangers to, political issues that it was natural and inevitable that there should emerge “a revaluation of all values”, a new study of fundamental problems, a new interest in theory, in elementals, in the ABC of politics. The millions who were suddenly awakened from their long sleep and confronted with extremely important problems could not long remain on this level. They could not continue without a respite, without a return to elementary questions, without a new training which would help them “digest” lessons of unparalleled richness and make it possible for incomparably wider masses again to march forward, but now far more firmly, more consciously, more confidently and more steadfastly.

The dialectics of historical development was such that in the first period, it was the attainment of immediate reforms in every sphere of the country’s life that was on the order of the day. In the second period it was the critical study of experience, its assimilation by wider sections, its penetration, so to speak, into the subsoil, into the back ward ranks of the various classes.

It is precisely because Marxism is not a lifeless dogma, not a completed, ready-made, immutable doctrine, but a living guide to action, that it was bound to reflect the astonishingly abrupt change in the conditions of social life.

That change was reflected in profound disintegration and disunity, in every manner of vacillation, in short, in a very serious internal crisis of Marxism. Resolute resistance to this disintegration, a resolute and persistent struggle to up hold the fundamentals of Marxism, was again placed on the order of the day. In the preceding period, extremely wide sections of the classes that cannot avoid Marxism in formulating their aims had assimilated that doctrine in an extremely one-sided and mutilated fashion. They had learnt by rote certain “slogans”, certain answers to tactical questions, without having understood the Marxist criteria for these   answers. The “revaluation of all values” in the various spheres of social life led to a “revision” of the most abstract and general philosophical fundamentals of Marxism. The influence of bourgeois philosophy in its diverse idealist shades found expression in the Machist epidemic that broke out among the Marxists. The repetition of “slogans” learnt by rote but not understood and not thought out led to the widespread prevalence of empty phrase-mongering. The practical expression of this were such absolutely un-Marxist, petty-bourgeois trends as frank or shamefaced “otzovism”, or the recognition of otzovism as a “legal shade” of Marxism.

On the other hand, the spirit of the magazine Vekhi, the spirit of renunciation which had taken possession of very wide sections of the bourgeoisie, also permeated the trend wishing to confine Marxist theory and practice to “moderate and careful” channels. All that remained of Marxism here was the phraseology used to clothe arguments about “hierarchy”, “hegemony” and so forth, that were thoroughly permeated with the spirit of liberalism.

The purpose of this article is not to examine these arguments. A mere reference to them is sufficient to illustrate what has been said above regarding the depth of the crisis through which Marxism is passing and its connection with the whole social and economic situation in the present period. The questions raised by this crisis cannot be brushed aside. Nothing can be more pernicious or unprincipled than attempts to dismiss them by phrase-mongering. Nothing is more important than to rally all Marxists who have realised the profundity of the crisis and the necessity of combating it, for defence of the theoretical basis of Marxism and its fundamental propositions, that are being distorted from diametrically opposite sides by the spread of bourgeois influence to the various “fellow-travellers” of Marxism.

The first three years awakened wide sections to a conscious participation in social life, sections that in many cases are now for the first time beginning to acquaint themselves with Marxism in real earnest, The bourgeois press is creating far more fallacious ideas on this score than ever before, and is spreading them more widely. Under these circumstances disintegration in the Marxist ranks is particularly   dangerous. Therefore, to understand the reasons for the inevitability of this disintegration at the present time and to close their ranks for consistent struggle against this disintegration is, in the most direct and precise meaning of the term, the task of the day for Marxists.

Notes

[1] Zvezda (The Star), in which this article appeared, was a Bolshevik legal newspaper, the forerunner of Pravda, published in St. Petersburg from December 16 (29), 1910 to April 22 (May 5), 1912 (at first weekly, then from January 1912 twice and from March, three times a week). On February 26 (March 10), 1912, No. 1 of Nevskaya Zvezda (Neva Star) was published at the same time as Zvezda, and, after the latter was closed down, continued its work. The last, the 27th issue of Nevskaya Zvezda was published on October 5(18), 1912.

Contributers to Zvezda were N. N. Baturin, K. S. Yeremeyev, N. G. Poletayev, M. S. Olminsky, and others, including Maxim Gorky, whom Lenin enlisted as a contributor. The pro-Party Mensheviks (Plekhanov’s group) contributed to Zvezda until the autumn of 1911. Lenin gave the paper ideological leadership from abroad, and together Zvezda and Nevskaya Zvezda published nearly fifty of his articles.

Under Lenin’s guidance the legal newspaper Zvezda became the militant paper of the Bolsheviks which defended the programme of the illegal Party Zvezda established workers’ correspondence on a broad scale, maintaining strong and regular contact with the workers. Some of its issues achieved a circulation of 50,000–60,000 copies.

The newspaper was the constant target of government repression; out of 96 issues of Zvezda and Nevskaya Zvezda, 39 were confiscated and 10 were subject to fines. Zvezda paved the way for the publication of the daily Bolshevik newspaper Pravda and on the very day it was closed down by the government the first issue of Pravda appeared.

[2] The “diehards” was the name given by Russian political literature to the extreme Right-wing representatives of the reactionary landlord class.

(3) Among the prominent Otzovists were Alexander Bogdanov, Mikhail Pokrovsky, Anatoly Lunacharsky, and Andrei Bubnov.[2][3] The debates among Bolsheviks whether to boycott the new constituency of the Russian parliament known as the Third Duma started after the defeat of the revolution in mid-1907 and the adoption of a new, highly restrictive election law